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    We present a new semi-analytical formalism for modelling metal absorption lines that emerge from a clumpy galactic environment, ALPACA. We predict the “down-the-barrel” (DTB) metal absorption line profiles and the equivalent width (EW) of absorption at different impact parameters (b) as a function of the clump properties, including clump kinematics, clump volume filling factor, clump number density profile, and clump ion column densities. With ALPACA, we jointly model the stacked DTB C ii λ1334 spectrum of a sample of z ∼ 3 Lyman break galaxies and the EW versus b profile of a sample of z ∼ 2 star-forming galaxy–galaxy pairs. ALPACA successfully reproduced two data sets simultaneously, and the best fit prefers a low clump volume filling factor (∼3 × 10−3). The radial velocities of the clumps are a superposition of a rapidly accelerated outflow with a maximum velocity of $\sim 400 \, {\mathrm{km}\, \mathrm{s}^{-1}}$ and a velocity dispersion of $\sigma \sim 120 \, {\mathrm{km}\, \mathrm{s}^{-1}}$. The joint modelling reveals a physical scenario where the absorption observed at a particular velocity is contributed by the clumps distributed over a fairly broad range of radii. We also find that the commonly adopted Sobolev approximation is at best only applicable within a narrow range of radii where the clumps are undergoing rapid acceleration in a non-volume-filling clumpy medium. Lastly, we find that the clump radial velocity profile may not be fully constrained by the joint modelling and spatially resolved Ly α emission modelling may help break the degeneracy.

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    Astrophysical gases such as the interstellar-, circumgalactic-, or intracluster-medium are commonly multiphase, which poses the question of the structure of these systems. While there are many known processes leading to fragmentation of cold gas embedded in a (turbulent) hot medium, in this work, we focus on the reverse process: coagulation. This is often seen in wind-tunnel and shearing layer simulations, where cold gas fragments spontaneously coalesce. Using 2D and 3D hydrodynamical simulations, we find that sufficiently large (≫cstcool), perturbed cold gas clouds develop pulsations which ensure cold gas mass growth over an extended period of time (≫r/cs). This mass growth efficiently accelerates hot gas which in turn can entrain cold droplets, leading to coagulation. The attractive inverse square force between cold gas droplets has interesting parallels with gravity; the ‘monopole’ is surface area rather than mass. We develop a simple analytic model which reproduces our numerical findings.

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    Understanding the survival, growth, and dynamics of cold gas is fundamental to galaxy formation. While there has been a plethora of work on ‘wind tunnel’ simulations that study such cold gas in winds, the infall of this gas under gravity is at least equally important, and fundamentally different since cold gas can never entrain. Instead, velocity shear increases and remains unrelenting. If these clouds are growing, they can experience a drag force due to the accretion of low-momentum gas, which dominates over ram pressure drag. This leads to subvirial terminal velocities, in line with observations. We develop simple analytic theory and predictions based on turbulent radiative mixing layers. We test these scalings in 3D hydrodynamic simulations, both for an artificial constant background and a more realistic stratified background. We find that the survival criterion for infalling gas is more stringent than in a wind, requiring that clouds grow faster than they are destroyed ($t_{\rm grow} \lt 4\, t_{\rm cc}$). This can be translated to a critical pressure, which for Milky Way-like conditions is $P \sim 3000 \, {k}_\mathrm{ B} \, {\rm K}\, {\rm cm}^{-3}$. Cold gas that forms via linear thermal instability (tcool/tff < 1) in planar geometry meets the survival threshold. In stratified environments, larger clouds need only survive infall until cooling becomes effective. We discuss applications to high-velocity clouds and filaments in galaxy clusters.

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  4. Abstract

    The resonantly scattered Lyαline illuminates the extended halos of neutral hydrogen in the circumgalactic medium of galaxies. We present integral field Keck Cosmic Web Imager observations of double-peaked, spatially extended Lyαemission in 12 relatively low-mass (M∼ 109M)z∼ 2 galaxies characterized by extreme nebular emission lines. Using individual spaxels and small bins as well as radially binned profiles of larger regions, we find that for most objects in the sample the Lyαblue-to-red peak ratio increases, the peak separation decreases, and the fraction of flux emerging at line center increases with radius. We use new radiative transfer simulations to model each galaxy with a clumpy, multiphase outflow with radially varying outflow velocity, and self-consistently apply the same velocity model to the low-ionization interstellar absorption lines. These models reproduce the trends of peak ratio, peak separation, and trough depth with radius, and broadly reconcile outflow velocities inferred from Lyαand absorption lines. The galaxies in our sample are well-described by a model in which neutral, outflowing clumps are embedded in a hotter, more highly ionized inter-clump medium (ICM), whose residual neutral content produces absorption at the systemic redshift. The peak ratio, peak separation, and trough flux fraction are primarily governed by the line-of-sight component of the outflow velocity, the Hicolumn density, and the residual neutral density in the ICM respectively. The azimuthal asymmetries in the line profile further suggest nonradial gas motions at large radii and variations in the Hicolumn density in the outer halos.

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  5. ABSTRACT Existing ubiquitously in the Universe with the highest luminosity, the Lyman-α (Lyα) emission line encodes abundant physical information about the gaseous medium it interacts with. Nevertheless, the resonant nature of the Lyα line complicates the radiative transfer (RT) modelling of the line profile. We revisit the problem of deciphering the Lyα emission line with RT modelling. We reveal intrinsic parameter degeneracies in the widely used shell model in the optically thick regime for both static and outflowing cases, which suggest the limitations of the model. We also explore the connection between the more physically realistic multiphase, clumpy model, and the shell model. We find that the parameters of a ‘very clumpy’ slab model and the shell model have the following correspondences: (1) the total column density, the effective temperature, and the average radial clump outflow velocity of the clumpy slab model are equal to the H i column density, effective temperature, and expansion velocity of the shell model, respectively; (2) large intrinsic linewidths are required in the shell model to reproduce the wings of the clumpy slab models; (3) adding another phase of hot interclump medium increases peak separation, and the fitted shell expansion velocity lies between the outflow velocities of two phases of gas. Our results provide a viable solution to the major discrepancies associated with Lyα fitting reported in previous literature, and emphasize the importance of utilizing information from additional observations to break the intrinsic degeneracies and interpreting the model parameters in a more physically realistic context. 
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  6. Abstract

    The Magellanic Stream is sculpted by its infall through the Milky Way’s circumgalactic medium, but the rates and directions of mass, momentum, and energy exchange through the stream-halo interface are relative unknowns critical for determining the origin and fate of the Stream. Complementary to large-scale simulations of LMC-SMC interactions, we apply new insights derived from idealized, high-resolutioncloud-crushingand radiative turbulent mixing layer simulations to the Leading Arm and Trailing Stream. Contrary to classical expectations of fast cloud breakup, we predict that the Leading Arm and much of the Trailing Stream should be surviving infall and even gaining mass due to strong radiative cooling. Provided a sufficiently supersonic tidal swing-out from the Clouds, the present-day Leading Arm could be a series of high-density clumps in the cooling tail behind the progenitor cloud. We back up our analytic framework with a suite of converged wind-tunnel simulations, finding that previous results on cloud survival and mass growth can be extended to high Mach number () flows with a modified drag timetdrag1+and longer growth time. We also simulate the Trailing Stream; we find that the growth time is long (approximately gigayears) compared to the infall time, and approximate Hαemission is low on average (∼ a few milliRayleigh) but can be up to tens of milliRayleigh in bright spots. Our findings also have broader extragalactic implications, e.g., galactic winds, which we discuss.

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    Ram pressure stripping (RPS) is an important process to affect the evolution of cluster galaxies and their surrounding environment. We present a large MUSE mosaic for ESO 137-001 and its stripped tails, and study the detailed distributions and kinematics of the ionized gas and stars. The warm, ionized gas is detected to at least 87 kpc from the galaxy and splits into three tails. There is a clear velocity gradient roughly perpendicular to the stripping direction, which decreases along the tails and disappears beyond ∼45 kpc downstream. The velocity dispersion of the ionized gas increases to ∼80 km s−1 at ∼20 kpc downstream and stays flat beyond. The stars in the galaxy disc present a regular rotation motion, while the ionized gas is already disturbed by the ram pressure. Based on the observed velocity gradient, we construct the velocity model for the residual galactic rotation in the tails and discuss the origin and implication of its fading with distance. By comparing with theoretical studies, we interpreted the increased velocity dispersion as the result of the oscillations induced by the gas flows in the galaxy wake, which may imply an enhanced degree of turbulence there. We also compare the kinematic properties of the ionized gas and molecular gas from ALMA, which shows they are co-moving and kinematically mixed through the tails. Our study demonstrates the great potential of spatially resolved spectroscopy in probing the detailed kinematic properties of the stripped gas, which can provide important information for future simulations of RPS.

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    We present new spectroscopic observations of Ly α (Ly α) Blob 2 (z ∼ 3.1). We observed extended Ly α emission in three distinct regions, where the highest Ly α surface brightness (SB) centre is far away from the known continuum sources. We searched through the MOSFIRE slits that cover the high Ly α SB regions, but were unable to detect any significant nebular emission near the highest SB centre. We further mapped the flux ratio of the blue peak to the red peak and found it is anticorrelated with Ly α SB with a power-law index of ∼ –0.4. We used radiative transfer models with both multiphase, clumpy, and shell geometries and successfully reproduced the diverse Ly α morphologies. We found that most spectra suggest outflow-dominated kinematics, while 4/15 spectra imply inflows. A significant correlation exists between parameter pairs, and the multiphase, clumpy model may alleviate previously reported discrepancies. We also modelled Ly α spectra at different positions simultaneously and found that the variation of the inferred clump outflow velocities can be approximately explained by line-of-sight projection effects. Our results support the ‘central powering  + scattering’ scenario, i.e. the Ly α photons are generated by a central powering source and then scatter with outflowing, multiphase H  i gas while propagating outwards. The infalling of cool gas near the blob outskirts shapes the observed blue-dominated Ly α profiles, but its energy contribution to the total Ly α luminosity is less than 10 per cent, i.e. minor compared to the photoionization by star-forming galaxies and/or AGNs.

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