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  1. Free, publicly-accessible full text available July 14, 2025
  2. Free, publicly-accessible full text available July 14, 2025
  3. Free, publicly-accessible full text available March 29, 2025
  4. Abstract

    We present a comparison of the measured cosmic ray (CR) muon fluxes from two identical portable low‐cost detectors at different geolocations and their sensitivity to space weather events in real time. The first detector is installed at Mount Wilson Observatory, CA, USA (geomagnetic cutoff rigidity Rc ∼ 4.88 GV), and the second detector is running on the downtown campus of Georgia State University in Atlanta, GA, USA (Rc ∼ 3.65 GV). The variation of the detected muon fluxes is compared to the changes in the interplanetary solar wind parameters at the L1 Lagrange point and geomagnetic indexes. In particular, we have investigated the muon flux behavior during three major interplanetary shock events and geomagnetic disturbances that occurred during July and August of 2022. To validate the interpretation of the measured muon signals, we compare the muon fluxes to the measurement from the Oulu neutron monitor (NM, Rc ∼ 0.8 GV). The results of this analysis show that the muon detector installed at Mount Wilson Observatory demonstrates a stronger correlation with a high‐latitude NM. Both detectors typically observe a muon flux decrease during the arrival of interplanetary shocks and geomagnetic storms. Interestingly, the decrease could be observed several hours before the onset of the first considered interplanetary shocks at L1 at 2022‐07‐23 02:28:00 UT driven by the high‐speed Coronal Mass Ejection and related geomagnetic storm at 2022‐07‐23 03:59:00 UT. This effort represents an initial step toward establishing a global network of portable low‐cost CR muon detectors for monitoring the sensitivity of muon flux changes to space and terrestrial weather parameters.

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    Free, publicly-accessible full text available December 1, 2024
  5. Pore-resolved direct numerical simulations (DNS) are used to investigate the interactions between stream-water flow turbulence and groundwater flow through a porous sediment bed in the hyporheic zone. Two permeability Reynolds numbers (2.56 and 5.17), representative of aquatic systems and representing ratio of permeability to viscous length scales, were simulated to understand its influence on the momentum exchange at the sediment-water interface (SWI). A doubleaveraging methodology is used to compute the Reynolds stresses, form-induced stresses, and pressure fluctuations. It is observed that both shear layer and turbulent shear stress penetration increases with ReK. Reynolds and form-induced bed-normal stresses increase with ReK. The peak values of the form-induced stresses for the lower (2.56) and higher (5.17) ReK happen within the top layer of the sediment bed. The sum of turbulent and form-induced pressure fluctuations, analyzed at their respective zero-displacement planes, are statistically similar and can be well approximated by a t location-scale distribution fit providing with a model that could potentially be used to impose boundary conditions at the SWI in reach scale simulations. 
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  6. Direct numerical simulation is used to investigate effects of turbulent flow in the confined geometry of a face-centred cubic porous unit cell on the transport, clustering and deposition of fine particles at different Stokes numbers ( 𝑆𝑡=0.01,0.1,0.5,1,2 ) and at a pore Reynolds number of 500. Particles are advanced using one-way coupling and the collision of particles with pore walls is modelled as perfectly elastic with specular reflection. Tools for studying inertial particle dynamics and clustering developed for homogeneous flows are adapted to take into account the embedded, curved geometry of the pore walls. The pattern and dynamics of clustering are investigated using the volume change of Voronoi tesselation in time to analyse the divergence and convergence of the particles. Similar to the case of homogeneous, isotropic turbulence, the cluster formation is present at large volumes, while cluster destruction is prominent at small volumes and these effects are amplified with the Stokes number. However, unlike homogeneous, isotropic turbulence, the formation of a large number of very small volumes was observed at all Stokes numbers and attributed to the collision of particles with the pore wall. Multiscale wavelet analysis of the particle number density indicates that the peak of the energy density spectrum, representative of enhanced particle clustering, shifts towards larger scales with an increase in the Stokes number. Scale-dependent skewness and flatness quantify the intermittent void and cluster distribution, with cluster formation observed at small scales for all Stokes numbers, and void regions at large scales for large Stokes numbers. 
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