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  1. Free, publicly-accessible full text available October 1, 2024
  2. null (Ed.)
    Collaborations that require information sharing and mutual trust between companies, suppliers, and clients can be tough, particularly in the remote era. But blockchain’s distributed ledger — and its use of smart contracts — can simplify the process, creating a common, reliable record of transactions and avoiding costly disputes. In doing so, blockchain changes how deals are made: Partner selection is made simpler, as establishing trust is less important; agreement formation is more important, because protocols are hard to alter once put in place; and execution is made easier, because outcomes can be automated. Blockchain isn’t a magic bullet — it works much better in some situations than others — but it can fundamentally change how collaborations work. 
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  3. Bosansky, B. ; Gonzalez, C. ; Rass, S. ; Sinha, A. (Ed.)
  4. Context.3C 84 is a nearby radio source with a complex total intensity structure, showing linear polarisation and spectral patterns. A detailed investigation of the central engine region necessitates the use of very-long-baseline interferometry (VLBI) above the hitherto available maximum frequency of 86 GHz.

    Aims.Using ultrahigh resolution VLBI observations at the currently highest available frequency of 228 GHz, we aim to perform a direct detection of compact structures and understand the physical conditions in the compact region of 3C 84.

    Methods.We used Event Horizon Telescope (EHT) 228 GHz observations and, given the limited (u, v)-coverage, applied geometric model fitting to the data. Furthermore, we employed quasi-simultaneously observed, ancillary multi-frequency VLBI data for the source in order to carry out a comprehensive analysis of the core structure.

    Results.We report the detection of a highly ordered, strong magnetic field around the central, supermassive black hole of 3C 84. The brightness temperature analysis suggests that the system is in equipartition. We also determined a turnover frequency ofνm = (113 ± 4) GHz, a corresponding synchrotron self-absorbed magnetic field ofBSSA = (2.9 ± 1.6) G, and an equipartition magnetic field ofBeq = (5.2 ± 0.6) G. Three components are resolved with the highest fractional polarisation detected for this object (mnet = (17.0 ± 3.9)%). The positions of the components are compatible with those seen in low-frequency VLBI observations since 2017–2018. We report a steeply negative slope of the spectrum at 228 GHz. We used these findings to test existing models of jet formation, propagation, and Faraday rotation in 3C 84.

    Conclusions.The findings of our investigation into different flow geometries and black hole spins support an advection-dominated accretion flow in a magnetically arrested state around a rapidly rotating supermassive black hole as a model of the jet-launching system in the core of 3C 84. However, systematic uncertainties due to the limited (u, v)-coverage, however, cannot be ignored. Our upcoming work using new EHT data, which offer full imaging capabilities, will shed more light on the compact region of 3C 84.

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    Free, publicly-accessible full text available February 1, 2025
  5. The prediction of human shifts of attention is a widely-studied question in both behavioral and computer vision, especially in the context of a free viewing task. However, search behavior, where the fixation scanpaths are highly dependent on the viewer's goals, has received far less attention, even though visual search constitutes much of a person's everyday behavior. One reason for this is the absence of real-world image datasets on which search models can be trained. In this paper we present a carefully created dataset for two target categories, microwaves and clocks, curated from the COCO2014 dataset. A total of 2183 images were presented to multiple participants, who were tasked to search for one of the two categories. This yields a total of 16184 validated fixations used for training, making our microwave-clock dataset currently one of the largest datasets of eye fixations in categorical search. We also present a 40-image testing dataset, where images depict both a microwave and a clock target. Distinct fixation patterns emerged depending on whether participants searched for a microwave (n=30) or a clock (n=30) in the same images, meaning that models need to predict different search scanpaths from the same pixel inputs. We report the results of several state-of-the-art deep network models that were trained and evaluated on these datasets. Collectively, these datasets and our protocol for evaluation provide what we hope will be a useful test-bed for the development of new methods for predicting category-specific visual search behavior. 
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  6. null (Ed.)