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  1. Free, publicly-accessible full text available May 1, 2023
  2. We study the principal core g-mode oscillation in hybrid stars containing quark matter and find that they have an unusually large frequency range (≈200–600 Hz) compared to ordinary neutron stars or self-bound quark stars of the same mass. Theoretical arguments and numerical calculations that trace this effect to the difference in the behavior of the equilibrium and adiabatic sound speeds in the mixed phase of quarks and nucleons are provided. We propose that the sensitivity of core g-mode oscillations to non-nucleonic matter in neutron stars could be due to the presence of a mixed quark-nucleon phase. Based on our analysis, we conclude that for binary mergers where one or both components may be a hybrid star, the fraction of tidal energy pumped into resonant g-modes in hybrid stars can exceed that of a normal neutron star by a factor of 2 to 3, although resonance occurs during the last stages of inspiral. A self-bound star, on the other hand, has a much weaker tidal overlap with the g-mode. The cumulative tidal phase error in hybrid stars, Δφ ≅ 0.5 rad, is comparable to that from tides in ordinary neutron stars, presenting a challenge in distinguishing between the two cases. However,more »should the principal g-mode be excited to sufficient amplitude for detection in a postmerger remnant with quark matter in its interior, its frequency would be a possible indication for the existence of non-nucleonic matter in neutron stars.« less
  3. The vector interaction enhanced Bag model (vBag) for dense quark matter extends the commonly used thermodynamic Bag model (tdBag) by incorporating effects of dynamical chiral symmetry breaking (D χ SB) and vector repulsion. Motivated by the suggestion that the stability of strange matter is in tension with chiral symmetry breaking (D χ SB) we examine the parameter space for its stability in the vBag model in this work. Assuming the chiral transition occurs at sufficiently low density, we determine the stability region of strange matter as a function of the effective Bag constant and the vector coupling. As an astrophysical application, we construct contours of maximum mass M max and radius at maximum mass R max in this region of parameter space. We also study the stability of strange stars in the vBag model with maximum mass in the 2 M ⊙ range by computing the spectrum of radial oscillations, and comparing to results from the tdBag model, find some notable differences.
  4. We study the non-radial oscillation modes of strange quark stars with a homogeneous core and a crust made of strangelets. Using a 2-component equation-of-state model (core+crust) for strange quark stars that can produce stars as heavy as 2 solar masses, we identify the high-frequency l=2 spheroidal (f, p) in Newtonian gravity, using the Cowling approximation. The results are compared to the case of homogeneous compact stars such as polytropic neutron stars, as well as bare strange stars. We find that the strangelet crust only increases very slightly the frequency of the spheroidal modes, and that Newtonian gravity overestimates the mode frequencies of the strange star, as is the case for neutron stars.
  5. We study the effect of strong magnetic field on competing chiral and diquark order parameters in a regime of moderately dense quark matter. The interdependence of the chiral and diquark condensates through nonperturbative quark mass and strong coupling effects is analyzed in a two-flavor Nambu-Jona-Lasinio (NJL) model. In the weak magnetic field limit, our results agree qualitatively with earlier zero-field studies in the literature that find a critical coupling ratio G D / G S ~ 1.1 below which chiral or superconducting order parameters appear almost exclusively. Above the critical ratio, there exists a significant mixed broken phase region where both gaps are nonzero. However, a strong magnetic field B ≳ 1 0 18  G disrupts this mixed broken phase region and changes a smooth crossover found in the weak-field case to a first-order transition for both gaps at almost the same critical density. Our results suggest that in the two-flavor approximation to moderately dense quark matter strong magnetic field enhances the possibility of a mixed phase at high density, with implications for the structure, energetics, and vibrational spectrum of neutron stars.