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  1. In this paper we theoretically and experimentally demonstrate a novel adaptation of independent component analysis (ICA) for compensation of both cross-polarization and inter-symbol interference in a direct-detection link using Stokes vector modulation (SVM). SVM systems suffer from multiple simultaneous impairments that can be difficult to resolve with conventional optical channel DSP techniques. The proposed method is based on a six-dimensional adaptation of ICA that simultaneously de-rotates the SVM constellation, corrects distortion of constellation shape, and mitigates inter-symbol interference (ISI) at high symbol rates. Experimental results at 7.5 Gb/s and 15Gb/s show that the newly developed ICA-based equalizer achieves power penalties below ∼1 dB, compared to the ideal theoretical bit-error rate (BER) curves. At 30-Gb/s, where ISI is more severe, ICA still enables polarization de-rotation and BER < 10−5before error correction.

  2. Polymer optical fibers (POFs) are playing an important role in industrial applications nowadays due to their ease of handling and resilience to bending and environmental effects. A POF can tolerate a bending radius of less than 20 mm, it can work in environments with temperatures ranging from −55 °C to +105 °C, and its lifetime is around 20 years. In this paper, we propose a novel, rigorous, and efficient computational model to estimate the most important parameters that determine the characteristics of light propagation through a step-index polymer optical fiber (SI-POF). The model uses attenuation, diffusion, and mode group delay as functions of the propagation angle to characterize the optical power transmission in the SI-POF. Taking into consideration the mode group delay allows us to generalize the computational model to be applicable to POFs with different index profiles. In particular, we use experimental measurements of spatial distributions and frequency responses to derive accurate parameters for our SI-POF simulation model. The experimental data were measured at different fiber lengths according to the cut-back method. This method consists of taking several measurements such as frequency responses, angular intensity distributions, and optical power measurements over a long length of fiber (>100 m), thenmore »cutting back the fiber while maintaining the same launching conditions and repeating the measurements on the shorter lengths of fiber. The model derivation uses an objective function to minimize the differences between the experimental measurements and the simulated results. The use of the matrix exponential method (MEM) to implement the SI-POF model results in a computationally efficient model that is suitable for POF-based system-level studies. The efficiency gain is due to the independence of the calculation time with respect to the fiber length, in contrast to the classic analytical solutions of the time-dependent power flow equation. The robustness of the proposed model is validated by calculating the goodness-of-fit of the model predictions relative to experimental data.« less
    Free, publicly-accessible full text available April 1, 2023
  3. Abstract: A novel adaptation of independent component analysis controls both cross-polarization and inter-symbol interference in a direct-detection link using Stokes vector modulation. 30-Gb/s experiments confirm polarization de-rotation and near-error-free transmission.
    Free, publicly-accessible full text available January 1, 2023
  4. Abstract

    We present a new variant of the Chambolle–Pock primal–dual algorithm with Bregman distances, analyze its convergence, and apply it to the centering problem in sparse semidefinite programming. The novelty in the method is a line search procedure for selecting suitable step sizes. The line search obviates the need for estimating the norm of the constraint matrix and the strong convexity constant of the Bregman kernel. As an application, we discuss the centering problem in large-scale semidefinite programming with sparse coefficient matrices. The logarithmic barrier function for the cone of positive semidefinite completable sparse matrices is used as the distance-generating kernel. For this distance, the complexity of evaluating the Bregman proximal operator is shown to be roughly proportional to the cost of a sparse Cholesky factorization. This is much cheaper than the standard proximal operator with Euclidean distances, which requires an eigenvalue decomposition.

  5. Understanding the movement of fluids in the solid Earth system is crucial for answering a wide range of important questions in Earth science. Boron (B) is a perfect tracer for geofluids because of its high solubility and large isotopic fractionation that depends on both temperature and alkalinity. However, the high volatility of boron in acidic solutions at moderate temperatures presents a significant challenge for accurate measurements of the boron concentration and boron isotopic ratios for silicate rock samples. To circumvent this problem, most laboratories use low-temperature dissolution methods that involve concentrated hydrofluoric acid with or without mannitol. However, hydrofluoric acid is highly hazardous and the controlled temperature condition may be difficult to monitor. As a result, relatively few silicate samples have been analyzed for high precision B concentration and isotopic composition measurements, which hinders our understanding of the behavior of B in the solid earth system and the utility of this powerful tracer. Here we report B concentrations and isotopic compositions of the most commonly used geological reference standards dissolved through sodium peroxide sintering and purified using a rapid single-column exchange chromatographic procedure. This streamlined method effectively removes Na and Si from the sample matrix and generates accurate B concentrationmore »and isotopic data in as little as a day without the need for expensive lab equipment and reagents. Sintering is already routinely used to dissolve zircon-bearing silicate samples as it ensures complete dissolution. Besides the analysis of boron, other elemental and isotopic analyses can be performed using aliquots of the same dissolution, which greatly speeds up the chemical processing time and reduces uncertainties associated with sample heterogeneity. Using this method, large amounts of material can be processed for ion-exchange chromatography without the need of splitting each sample into separate beakers for dissolution as is often required for the HF + mannitol dissolution method. This new method can rapidly expand the available dataset of the boron concentration and boron isotopes of silicate materials which will certainly advance our understanding of many geologic problems involving fluids.« less
  6. Free, publicly-accessible full text available May 24, 2023
  7. Protein–protein interactions are essential for life but rarely thermodynamically quantified in living cells. In vitro efforts show that protein complex stability is modulated by high concentrations of cosolutes, including synthetic polymers, proteins, and cell lysates via a combination of hard-core repulsions and chemical interactions. We quantified the stability of a model protein complex, the A34F GB1 homodimer, in buffer,Escherichia colicells andXenopus laevisoocytes. The complex is more stable in cells than in buffer and more stable in oocytes thanE. coli. Studies of several variants show that increasing the negative charge on the homodimer surface increases stability in cells. These data, taken together with the fact that oocytes are less crowded thanE. colicells, lead to the conclusion that chemical interactions are more important than hard-core repulsions under physiological conditions, a conclusion also gleaned from studies of protein stability in cells. Our studies have implications for understanding how promiscuous—and specific—interactions coherently evolve for a protein to properly function in the crowded cellular environment.

  8. Polarization-shift keying offers multi-dimensional signaling for optical links to achieve high data rates using low-coherence sources. In binary systems with spectrally sliced broadband sources, on–off keying with a finite extinction ratio causes non-Gaussian noise distributions that lead to bit-error-rate floors. We show theoretically and experimentally that binary polarization-shift keying eliminates these error floors as well as improves sensitivity under all tested conditions.