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  1. Free, publicly-accessible full text available October 26, 2022
  2. Persistent main memory (PM) dramatically improves IO performance. We find that this results in file systems on PM spending as much as 70% of the IO path performing file mapping (mapping file offsets to physical locations on storage media) on real workloads. However, even PM-optimized file systems perform file mapping based on decades-old assumptions. It is now critical to revisit file mapping for PM. We explore the design space for PM file mapping by building and evaluating several file-mapping designs, including different data structure, caching, as well as meta-data and block allocation approaches, within the context of a PM-optimized filemore »system. Based on our findings, we design HashFS, a hash-based file mapping approach. HashFS uses a single hash operation for all mapping and allocation operations, bypassing the file system cache, instead prefetching mappings via SIMD parallelism and caching translations explicitly. HashFS’s resulting low latency provides superior performance compared to alternatives. HashFS increases the throughput of YCSB on LevelDB by up to 45% over page-cached extent trees in the state-of-the-art Strata PM-optimized file system« less
  3. Persistent Memory (PM) can be used by applications to directly and quickly persist any data structure, without the overhead of a file system. However, writing PM applications that are simultaneously correct and efficient is challenging. As a result, PM applications contain correctness and performance bugs. Prior work on testing PM systems has low bug coverage as it relies primarily on extensive test cases and developer annotations. In this paper we aim to build a system for more thoroughly testing PM applications. We inform our design using a detailed study of 63 bugs from popular PM projects. We identify two application-independentmore »patterns of PM misuse which account for the majority of bugs in our study and can be detected automatically. The remaining application-specific bugs can be detected using compact custom oracles provided by developers. We then present AGAMOTTO, a generic and extensible system for discovering misuse of persistent memory in PM applications. Unlike existing tools that rely on extensive test cases or annotations, AGAMOTTO symbolically executes PM systems to discover bugs. AGAMOTTO introduces a new symbolic memory model that is able to represent whether or not PM state has been made persistent. AGAMOTTO uses a state space exploration algorithm, which drives symbolic execution towards program locations that are susceptible to persistency bugs. AGAMOTTO has so far identified 84 new bugs in 5 different PM applications and frameworks while incurring no false positives.« less
  4. The adoption of low latency persistent memory modules (PMMs) upends the long-established model of remote storage for distributed file systems. Instead, by colocating computation with PMM storage, we can provide applications with much higher IO performance, sub-second application failover, and strong consistency. To demonstrate this, we built the Assise distributed file system, based on a persistent, replicated coherence protocol that manages client-local PMM as a linearizable and crash-recoverable cache between applications and slower (and possibly remote) storage. Assise maximizes locality for all file IO by carrying out IO on process-local, socket-local, and client-local PMM whenever possible. Assise minimizes coherence overheadmore »by maintaining consistency at IO operation granularity, rather than at fixed block sizes. We compare Assise to Ceph/BlueStore, NFS, and Octopus on a cluster with Intel Optane DC PMMs and SSDs for common cloud applications and benchmarks, such as LevelDB, Postfix, and FileBench. We find that Assise improves write latency up to 22x, throughput up to 56x, fail-over time up to 103x, and scales up to 6x better than its counterparts, while providing stronger consistency semantics.« less
  5. Current hardware and application storage trends put immense pressure on the operating system's storage subsystem. On the hardware side, the market for storage devices has diversified to a multi-layer storage topology spanning multiple orders of magnitude in cost and performance. Above the file system, applications increasingly need to process small, random IO on vast data sets with low latency, high throughput, and simple crash consistency. File systems designed for a single storage layer cannot support all of these demands together. We present Strata, a cross-media file system that leverages the strengths of one storage media to compensate for weaknesses ofmore »another. In doing so, Strata provides performance, capacity, and a simple, synchronous IO model all at once, while having a simpler design than that of file systems constrained by a single storage device. At its heart, Strata uses a log-structured approach with a novel split of responsibilities among user mode, kernel, and storage layers that separates the concerns of scalable, high-performance persistence from storage layer management. We quantify the performance benefits of Strata using a 3-layer storage hierarchy of emulated NVM, a flash-based SSD, and a high-density HDD. Strata has 20-30% better latency and throughput, across several unmodified applications, compared to file systems purpose-built for each layer, while providing synchronous and unified access to the entire storage hierarchy. Finally, Strata achieves up to 2.8x better throughput than a block-based 2-layer cache provided by Linux's logical volume manager.« less