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  1. The multiscale architecture of electrochemical energy storage (EES) materials critically impacts device performance, including energy, power, and durability. The pore space of nano‐ to macrostructured electrodes determines mass transport within the electrolyte and defines the effective energy density. The dimensions of the active charge‐storing materials can increase stability during cycling by accommodating strains from electrochemical–mechanical coupling while also defining surface area that increases capacitive charge storage, decreases charge‐transfer resistance, but also leads to low efficiency and degradation from interfacial reactions. Thus, elucidating and developing a fundamental understanding of these correlations requires materials with precisely tunable nanoscale architectures. Herein, approaches that take advantage of the nanoscale control offered by block copolymer (BCP) self‐assembly are reviewed and insights gained from associated nanoscale phenomena observed in EES are highlighted. Systematic studies that use custom‐tailored BCPs to reveal fundamental nanostructure–property–performance relationships are emphasized. Importantly, most reports of nanostructured materials utilize low loadings and thin electrodes and results represent mass transfer limitations at the particle scale. However, as cell‐level performance involves mass transport over 10–100s of micrometers, recently emerging BCP‐based processes are further highlighted, leading to hierarchical meso/macroporous materials needed for creating multiscale structure–performance relationships and next‐generation energy storage material architectures.

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  2. Abstract

    Plant succession is regulated by a combination of abiotic and biotic factors. However, previous studies of biotic drivers have focused overwhelmingly on direct pairwise species interactions, ignoring the likely prevalent higher-order interactions (HOIs) in natural systems. Climate also plays a significant role in determining successional dynamics with both direct effects and indirect effects via altered biotic interactions. Here we explored the relative effects of direct species interactions, HOIs, climate, and their interactions on population dynamics of herbaceous plants during 50 years of post-agricultural secondary succession and tested whether the inclusion of HOIs and climate data improved forecasts of population dynamics. Direct intraspecific interactions were competitive and prevalent across the 90 herbaceous plants examined, while direct interspecific interactions only affected populations of 29% species. HOIs, mainly arose from intraspecific HOIs of conspecifics, were mostly positive and thus largely mitigated the competitive effects of direct intraspecific interactions. Species with lower peak cover experienced stronger intraspecific competition and positive intraspecific HOIs of conspecifics. Direct interspecific interactions had neutral or facilitative effects on species with lower peak cover, and tended to have competitive effects on species with higher peak cover. Climate simultaneously influenced population dynamics both directly and indirectly via altered species interactions. Forecast performance was significantly improved with the inclusion of HOIs or climate for about half and one-third of species, respectively. Our study emphasizes the importance of HOIs, which largely mitigated direct competitive effects on population dynamics of herbaceous plants during succession. Teasing apart HOIs from direct species interactions substantially refined our understanding of successional dynamics of herbaceous plants and improved the accuracy of forecasting population dynamics during succession in a changing world.

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