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  1. Free, publicly-accessible full text available January 1, 2023
  2. Abstract Galaxy clusters identified via the Sunyaev-Zel’dovich effect (SZ) are a key ingredient in multi-wavelength cluster cosmology. We present and compare three methods of cluster identification: the standard Matched Filter (MF) method in SZ cluster finding, a Convolutional Neural Networks (CNN), and a ‘combined’ identifier. We apply the methods to simulated millimeter maps for several observing frequencies for a survey similar to SPT-3G, the third-generation camera for the South Pole Telescope. The MF requires image pre-processing to remove point sources and a model for the noise, while the CNN requires very little pre-processing of images. Additionally, the CNN requires tuning of hyperparameters in the model and takes cutout images of the sky as input, identifying the cutout as cluster-containing or not. We compare differences in purity and completeness. The MF signal-to-noise ratio depends on both mass and redshift. Our CNN, trained for a given mass threshold, captures a different set of clusters than the MF, some with SNR below the MF detection threshold. However, the CNN tends to mis-classify cutouts whose clusters are located near the edge of the cutout, which can be mitigated with staggered cutouts. We leverage the complementarity of the two methods, combining the scores from eachmore »method for identification. The purity and completeness are both 0.61 for MF, and 0.59 and 0.61 for CNN. The combined method yields 0.60 and 0.77, a significant increase for completeness with a modest decrease in purity. We advocate for combined methods that increase the confidence of many low signal-to-noise clusters.« less
  3. Simultaneous human activities, such as the Super Bowl game, would cause certain impacts on frequency fluctuations in power systems. With the help of FNET/GridEye measurements, this paper aims to give comprehensive analyses on the frequency fluctuations during Super Bowl LIV held on Feb. 2, 2020, so as to better understand several phenomena caused by simultaneous activities which will help system operations and controls. First, recent developments of the FNET/GridEye are briefly introduced. Second, the frequency fluctuations of the Eastern Interconnection (EI), western electricity coordinating council (WECC), and electric reliability council of Texas (ERCOT) power systems during Super Bowl LIV are analyzed. Third, frequency fluctuations of Super Bowl Sunday and ordinary Sundays in 2020 are compared. Finally, the differences of frequency fluctuations among different years during the Super Bowl and their change trends are also given. Furthermore, several possible explanations, including the simultaneity of electricity consumption at the beginning of commercial breaks and the halftime show, the increasing usage of the Internet, and the increasing size of TV screens, are illustrated in detail in this paper.
  4. Segmenting 3D cell nuclei from microscopy image volumes is critical for biological and clinical analysis, enabling the study of cellular expression patterns and cell lineages. However, current datasets for neuronal nuclei usually contain volumes smaller than 0.01 cubic mm with fewer than 500 instances per volume, unable to reveal the complexity in large brain regions and restrict the investigation of neuronal structures. In this paper, we have pushed the task forward to the sub-cubic millimeter scale and curated the NucMM dataset with two fully annotated volumes: one 0.1 cubic mm electron microscopy (EM) volume containing nearly the entire zebra sh brain with around 170,000 nuclei; and one 0.25 cubic mm micro-CT (uCT) volume containing part of a mouse visual cortex with about 7,000 nuclei. With two imaging modalities and significantly increased volume size and instance numbers, we discover a great diversity of neuronal nuclei in appearance and density, introducing new challenges to the  eld. We also perform a statistical analysis to illustrate those challenges quantitatively. To tackle the challenges, we propose a novel hybrid-representation learning model that combines the merits of foreground mask, contour map, and signed distance transform to produce high-quality 3D masks. The benchmark comparisons on the NucMM datasetmore »show that our proposed method significantly outperforms state-of- the-art nuclei segmentation approaches. Code and data are available at« less
  5. Electron microscopy (EM) enables the reconstruction of neural circuits at the level of individual synapses, which has been transformative for scientific discoveries. However, due to the complex morphology, an accurate reconstruction of cortical axons has become a major challenge. Worse still, there is no publicly available large-scale EM dataset from the cortex that provides dense ground truth segmentation for axons, making it difficult to develop and evaluate large-scale axon reconstruction methods. To address this, we introduce the AxonEM dataset, which consists of two 30x30x30 cubic mm EM image volumes from the human and mouse cortex, respectively. We thoroughly proofread over 18,000 axon instances to provide dense 3D axon instance segmentation, enabling large- scale evaluation of axon reconstruction methods. In addition, we densely annotate nine ground truth subvolumes for training, per each data volume. With this, we reproduce two published state-of-the-art methods and provide their evaluation results as a baseline. We publicly release our code and data at AxonEM/index.html to foster the development of advanced methods.