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  1. Free, publicly-accessible full text available February 28, 2025
  2. A robust binding between secondary amines and Au atomic contacts is achieved through the creation of Au adatoms by the use of a wax-coated tip.

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    Free, publicly-accessible full text available March 21, 2025
  3. Free, publicly-accessible full text available December 26, 2024
  4. A sensitive model captures the reactivity cliffs but overfit to yield outliers. On the other hand, a robust model disregards the yield outliers but underfits the reactivity cliffs.

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    Free, publicly-accessible full text available October 11, 2024
  5. Heterogeneous interfaces are central to many energy-related applications in the nanoscale. From the first-principles electronic structure perspective, one of the outstanding problems is accurately and efficiently calculating how the frontier quasiparticle levels of one component are aligned in energy with those of another at the interface, i.e., the so-called interfacial band alignment or level alignment. The alignment or the energy offset of these frontier levels is phenomenologically associated with the charge-transfer barrier across the interface and therefore dictates the interfacial dynamics. Although many-body perturbation theory provides a formally rigorous framework for computing the interfacial quasiparticle electronic structure, it is often associated with a high computational cost and is limited by its perturbative nature. It is, therefore, of great interest to develop practical alternatives, preferably based on density functional theory (DFT), which is known for its balance between efficiency and accuracy. However, conventional developments of density functionals largely focus on total energies and thermodynamic properties, and the design of functionals aiming for interfacial electronic structure is only emerging recently. This Review is dedicated to a self-contained narrative of the interfacial electronic structure problem and the efforts of the DFT community in tackling it. Since interfaces are closely related to surfaces, we first discuss the key physics behind the surface and interface electronic structure, namely, the image potential and the gap renormalization. This is followed by a review of early examinations of the surface exchange-correlation hole and the exchange-correlation potential, which are central quantities in DFT. Finally, we survey two modern endeavors in functional development that focus on the interfacial electronic structure, namely, the dielectric-dependent hybrids and local hybrids.

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    Free, publicly-accessible full text available September 1, 2024
  6. Abstract

    The synthesis of soft matter intelligence with circuit‐driven logic has enabled a new class of robots that perform complex tasks or conform to specialized form factors in unique ways that cannot be realized through conventional designs. Translating this hybrid approach to fluidic systems, the present work addresses the need for sheet‐based circuit materials by leveraging the innate porosity of foam—a soft material—to develop pneumatic components that support digital logic, mixed‐signal control, and analog force sensing in wearables and soft robots. Analytical tools and experimental techniques developed in this work serve to elucidate compressible gas flow through porous sheets, and to inform the design of centimeter‐sized foam resistors with fluidic resistances on the order of 109 Pa s m−3. When embedded inside soft robots and wearables, these resistors facilitate diverse functionalities spanning both sensing and control domains, including digital logic using textile logic gates, digital‐to‐analog signal conversion using ladder networks, and analog sensing of forces up to 40 N via compression‐induced changes in resistance. By combining features of both circuit‐based and materials‐based approaches, foam‐enabled fluidic circuits serve as a useful paradigm for future hybrid robotic architectures that fully embody the sensing and computing capabilities of soft fluidic materials.

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  7. A<sc>bstract</sc>

    We present a comprehensive study on how to distinguish the properties of heavy dijet resonances at hadron colliders. A variety of spins, chiral couplings, charges, and QCD color representations are considered. Distinguishing the different color representations is particularly difficult at hadron colliders. To determine the QCD color structure, we consider a third jet radiated in a resonant dijet event. We show that the relative rates of three-jet versus two-jet processes are sensitive to the color representation of the resonance. We also show analytically that the antennae radiation pattern of soft radiation depends on the color structure of dijet events and develops an observable that is sensitive to the antennae patterns. Finally, we exploit a Convolutional Neural Network with Machine Learning techniques to differentiate the radiation patterns from different colored resonances and find encouraging results to discriminate them. We demonstrate our results numerically at a 14 TeV LHC, and the methodology presented here should be applicable to other future hadron colliders.

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    Free, publicly-accessible full text available August 1, 2024
  8. Abstract

    Squeezed light has long been used to enhance the precision of a single optomechanical sensor. An emerging set of proposals seeks to use arrays of optomechanical sensors to detect weak distributed forces, for applications ranging from gravity-based subterranean imaging to dark matter searches; however, a detailed investigation into the quantum-enhancement of this approach remains outstanding. Here, we propose an array of entanglement-enhanced optomechanical sensors to improve the broadband sensitivity of distributed force sensing. By coherently operating the optomechanical sensor array and distributing squeezing to entangle the optical fields, the array of sensors has a scaling advantage over independent sensors (i.e.,$$\sqrt{M}\to M$$MM, whereMis the number of sensors) due to coherence as well as joint noise suppression due to multi-partite entanglement. As an illustration, we consider entanglement-enhancement of an optomechanical accelerometer array to search for dark matter, and elucidate the challenge of realizing a quantum advantage in this context.

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  9. Optomechanical systems have been exploited in ultrasensitive measurements of force, acceleration and magnetic fields. The fundamental limits for optomechanical sensing have been extensively studied and now well understood—the intrinsic uncertainties of the bosonic optical and mechanical modes, together with backaction noise arising from interactions between the two, dictate the standard quantum limit. Advanced techniques based on non-classical probes, in situ ponderomotive squeezed light and backaction-evading measurements have been developed to overcome the standard quantum limit for individual optomechanical sensors. An alternative, conceptually simpler approach to enhance optomechanical sensing rests on joint measurements taken by multiple sensors. In this configuration, a pathway to overcome the fundamental limits in joint measurements has not been explored. Here we demonstrate that joint force measurements taken with entangled probes on multiple optomechanical sensors can improve the bandwidth in the thermal-noise-dominant regime or the sensitivity in the shot-noise-dominant regime. Moreover, we quantify the overall performance of entangled probes with the sensitivity–bandwidth product and observe a 25% increase compared with that of classical probes. The demonstrated entanglement-enhanced optomechanical sensors would enable new capabilities for inertial navigation, acoustic imaging and searches for new physics. 
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