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Creators/Authors contains: "Mahabadi, Sepideh"

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1. ; (Ed.)
In this paper, we prove a two-sided variant of the Kirszbraun theorem. Consider an arbitrary subset X of Euclidean space and its superset Y. Let f be a 1-Lipschitz map from X to ℝ^m. The Kirszbraun theorem states that the map f can be extended to a 1-Lipschitz map ̃ f from Y to ℝ^m. While the extension ̃ f does not increase distances between points, there is no guarantee that it does not decrease distances significantly. In fact, ̃ f may even map distinct points to the same point (that is, it can infinitely decrease some distances). However, we prove that there exists a (1 + ε)-Lipschitz outer extension f̃:Y → ℝ^{m'} that does not decrease distances more than "necessary". Namely, ‖f̃(x) - f̃(y)‖ ≥ c √{ε} min(‖x-y‖, inf_{a,b ∈ X} (‖x - a‖ + ‖f(a) - f(b)‖ + ‖b-y‖)) for some absolutely constant c > 0. This bound is asymptotically optimal, since no L-Lipschitz extension g can have ‖g(x) - g(y)‖ > L min(‖x-y‖, inf_{a,b ∈ X} (‖x - a‖ + ‖f(a) - f(b)‖ + ‖b-y‖)) even for a single pair of points x and y. In some applications, one is interested in the distances ‖f̃(x) - f̃(y)‖more »
2. We introduce and study the notion of *an outer bi-Lipschitz extension* of a map between Euclidean spaces. The notion is a natural analogue of the notion of *a Lipschitz extension* of a Lipschitz map. We show that for every map f there exists an outer bi-Lipschitz extension f′ whose distortion is greater than that of f by at most a constant factor. This result can be seen as a counterpart of the classic Kirszbraun theorem for outer bi-Lipschitz extensions. We also study outer bi-Lipschitz extensions of near-isometric maps and show upper and lower bounds for them. Then, we present applications of our results to prioritized and terminal dimension reduction problems, described next. We prove a *prioritized* variant of the Johnson–Lindenstrauss lemma: given a set of points X⊂ ℝd of size N and a permutation (”priority ranking”) of X, there exists an embedding f of X into ℝO(logN) with distortion O(loglogN) such that the point of rank j has only O(log3 + ε j) non-zero coordinates – more specifically, all but the first O(log3+ε j) coordinates are equal to 0; the distortion of f restricted to the first j points (according to the ranking) is at most O(loglogj). The result makesmore »
3. We study the classic set cover problem from the perspective of sub-linear algorithms. Given access to a collection of m sets over n elements in the query model, we show that sub-linear algorithms derived from existing techniques have almost tight query complexities. On one hand, first we show an adaptation of the streaming algorithm presented in  to the sub-linear query model, that returns an α-approximate cover using Õ(m(n/k)^1/(α–1) + nk) queries to the input, where k denotes the value of a minimum set cover. We then complement this upper bound by proving that for lower values of k, the required number of queries is , even for estimating the optimal cover size. Moreover, we prove that even checking whether a given collection of sets covers all the elements would require Ω(nk) queries. These two lower bounds provide strong evidence that the upper bound is almost tight for certain values of the parameter k. On the other hand, we show that this bound is not optimal for larger values of the parameter k, as there exists a (1 + ε)-approximation algorithm with Õ(mn/kε^2) queries. We show that this bound is essentially tight for sufficiently small constant ε, by establishing amore »