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Free, publiclyaccessible full text available May 6, 2025

Free, publiclyaccessible full text available May 6, 2025

We study fair distribution of a collection of m indivisible goods among a group of n agents, using the widely recognized fairness principles of Maximin Share (MMS) and Any Price Share (APS). These principles have undergone thorough investigation within the context of additive valuations. We explore these notions for valuations that extend beyond additivity.First, we study approximate MMS under the separable (piecewiselinear) concave (SPLC) valuations, an important class generalizing additive, where the best known factor was 1/3MMS. We show that 1/2MMS allocation exists and can be computed in polynomial time, significantly improving the stateoftheart.We note that SPLC valuations introduce an elevated level of intricacy in contrast to additive. For instance, the MMS value of an agent can be as high as her value for the entire set of items. We use a relaxandround paradigm that goes through competitive equilibrium and LP relaxation. Our result extends to give (symmetric) 1/2APS, a stronger guarantee than MMS.APS is a stronger notion that generalizes MMS by allowing agents with arbitrary entitlements. We study the approximation of APS under submodular valuation functions. We design and analyze a simple greedy algorithm using concave extensions of submodular functions. We prove that the algorithm gives a 1/3APS allocation which matches the bestknown factor. Concave extensions are hard to compute in polynomial time and are, therefore, generally not used in approximation algorithms. Our approach shows a way to utilize it within analysis (while bypassing its computation), and hence might be of independent interest.
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Free, publiclyaccessible full text available August 18, 2024

We study fair division of indivisible chores among n agents with additive disutility functions. Two wellstudied fairness notions for indivisible items are envyfreeness up to one/any item (EF1/EFX) and the standard notion of economic efficiency is Pareto optimality (PO). There is a noticeable gap between the results known for both EF1 and EFX in the goods and chores settings. The case of chores turns out to be much more challenging. We reduce this gap by providing slightly relaxed versions of the known results on goods for the chores setting. Interestingly, our algorithms run in polynomial time, unlike their analogous versions in the goods setting.We introduce the concept of k surplus in the chores setting which means that up to k more chores are allocated to the agents and each of them is a copy of an original chore. We present a polynomialtime algorithm which gives EF1 and PO allocations with n1 surplus.We relax the notion of EFX slightly and define tEFX which requires that the envy from agent i to agent j is removed upon the transfer of any chore from the i's bundle to j's bundle. We give a polynomialtime algorithm that in the chores case for 3 agents returns an allocation which is either proportional or tEFX. Note that proportionality is a very strong criterion in the case of indivisible items, and hence both notions we guarantee are desirable.
Free, publiclyaccessible full text available August 1, 2024 
Free, publiclyaccessible full text available July 7, 2024

We study the fair division problem of allocating a mixed manna under additively separable piecewise linear concave (SPLC) utilities. A mixed manna contains goods that everyone likes and bads (chores) that everyone dislikes as well as items that some like and others dislike. The seminal work of Bogomolnaia et al. argues why allocating a mixed manna is genuinely more complicated than a good or a bad manna and why competitive equilibrium is the best mechanism. It also provides the existence of equilibrium and establishes its distinctive properties (e.g., nonconvex and disconnected set of equilibria even under linear utilities) but leaves the problem of computing an equilibrium open. Our main results are a linear complementarity problem formulation that captures all competitive equilibria of a mixed manna under SPLC utilities (a strict generalization of linear) and a complementary pivot algorithm based on Lemke’s scheme for finding one. Experimental results on randomly generated instances suggest that our algorithm is fast in practice. Given the [Formula: see text]hardness of the problem, designing such an algorithm is the only non–brute force (nonenumerative) option known; for example, the classic Lemke–Howson algorithm for computing a Nash equilibrium in a twoplayer game is still one of the most widely used algorithms in practice. Our algorithm also yields several new structural properties as simple corollaries. We obtain a (constructive) proof of existence for a far more general setting, membership of the problem in [Formula: see text], a rationalvalued solution, and an odd number of solutions property. The last property also settles the conjecture of Bogomolnaia et al. in the affirmative. Furthermore, we show that, if the number of either agents or items is a constant, then the number of pivots in our algorithm is strongly polynomial when the mixed manna contains all bads.more » « less