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  1. Free, publicly-accessible full text available May 13, 2025
  2. Incorporating inductive biases is a promising approach for tackling challenging robot learning domains with sample-efficient solutions. This paper identifies partially observable domains where symmetries can be a useful inductive bias for efficient learning. Specifically, by encoding the equivariance regarding specific group symmetries into the neural networks, our actor-critic reinforcement learning agents can reuse solutions in the past for related scenarios. Consequently, our equivariant agents outperform non-equivariant approaches significantly in terms of sample efficiency and final performance, demonstrated through experiments on a range of robotic tasks in simulation and real hardware. 
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    Free, publicly-accessible full text available November 1, 2024
  3. Abstract Real-world grasp detection is challenging due to the stochasticity in grasp dynamics and the noise in hardware. Ideally, the system would adapt to the real world by training directly on physical systems. However, this is generally difficult due to the large amount of training data required by most grasp learning models. In this paper, we note that the planar grasp function is $\textrm{SE}(2)$ -equivariant and demonstrate that this structure can be used to constrain the neural network used during learning. This creates an inductive bias that can significantly improve the sample efficiency of grasp learning and enable end-to-end training from scratch on a physical robot with as few as 600 grasp attempts. We call this method Symmetric Grasp learning (SymGrasp) and show that it can learn to grasp “from scratch” in less that 1.5 h of physical robot time. This paper represents an expanded and revised version of the conference paper Zhu et al. (2022). 
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  4. In robotic manipulation, acquiring samples is extremely expensive because it often requires interacting with the real world. Traditional image-level data augmentation has shown the potential to improve sample efficiency in various machine learning tasks. However, image-level data augmentation is insufficient for an imitation learning agent to learn good manipulation policies in a reasonable amount of demonstrations. We propose Simulation-augmented Equivariant Imitation Learning (SEIL), a method that combines a novel data augmentation strategy of supplementing expert trajectories with simulated transitions and an equivariant model that exploits the O(2) symmetry in robotic manipulation. Experimental evaluations demonstrate that our method can learn non-trivial manipulation tasks within ten demonstrations and outperform the baselines by a significant margin. 
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  5. Robotic pick and place tasks are symmetric under translations and rotations of both the object to be picked and the desired place pose. For example, if the pick object is rotated or translated, then the optimal pick action should also rotate or translate. The same is true for the place pose; if the desired place pose changes, then the place action should also transform accordingly. A recently proposed pick and place framework known as Transporter Net (Zeng, Florence, Tompson, Welker, Chien, Attarian, Armstrong, Krasin, Duong, Sindhwani et al., 2021) captures some of these symmetries, but not all. This paper analytically studies the symmetries present in planar robotic pick and place and proposes a method of incorporating equivariant neural models into Transporter Net in a way that captures all symmetries. The new model, which we call Equivariant Transporter Net, is equivariant to both pick and place symmetries and can immediately generalize pick and place knowledge to different pick and place poses. We evaluate the new model empirically and show that it is much more sample-efficient than the non-symmetric version, resulting in a system that can imitate demonstrated pick and place behavior using very few human demonstrations on a variety of imitation learning tasks.

     
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  6. Predicting the pose of objects from a single image is an important but difficult computer vision problem. Methods that predict a single point estimate do not predict the pose of objects with symmetries well and cannot represent uncertainty. Alternatively, some works predict a distribution over orientations in SO(3). However, training such models can be computation- and sample-inefficient. Instead, we propose a novel mapping of features from the image domain to the 3D rotation manifold. Our method then leverages SO(3) equivariant layers, which are more sample efficient, and outputs a distribution over rotations that can be sampled at arbitrary resolution. We demonstrate the effectiveness of our method at object orientation prediction, and achieve state-of-the-art performance on the popular PASCAL3D+ dataset. Moreover, we show that our method can model complex object symmetries, without any modifications to the parameters or loss function. Code is available at https://dmklee.github.io/image2sphere/ 
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