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  1. Abstract In the 60 years since the invention of the laser, the scientific community has developed numerous fields of research based on these bright, coherent light sources, including the areas of imaging, spectroscopy, materials processing and communications. Ultrafast spectroscopy and imaging techniques are at the forefront of research into the light–matter interaction at the shortest times accessible to experiments, ranging from a few attoseconds to nanoseconds. Light pulses provide a crucial probe of the dynamical motion of charges, spins, and atoms on picosecond, femtosecond, and down to attosecond timescales, none of which are accessible even with the fastest electronic devices.more »Furthermore, strong light pulses can drive materials into unusual phases, with exotic properties. In this roadmap we describe the current state-of-the-art in experimental and theoretical studies of condensed matter using ultrafast probes. In each contribution, the authors also use their extensive knowledge to highlight challenges and predict future trends.« less
  2. Augmented reality (AR) is a powerful visualization tool to support learning of scientific concepts across learners of various ages. AR can make information otherwise invisible visible in the physical world in real-time. In this study, we are looking at a subset of data from a larger study (N=120), in which participant pairs interacted with an augmented sound producing speaker. We explored the learning behaviors in eight pairs of learners (N=16) who participated in an unstructured physics activity under two conditions: with or without AR. Comparing behaviors between the two experimental conditions, we found that AR affected learning in four differentmore »ways: participants in the AR condition (1) learned more about visual concepts (ex: magnetic field structures) but learned less about nonvisual content (ex: relationship between electricity and physical movement); (2) stopped exploring the system faster than NonAR participants; (3) used less aids in exploration and teaching; and (4) spent less time in teaching their collaborators. We discuss implications of those results for designing collaborative learning activities with augmented reality.« less