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  1. An interleaved-Dyck (InterDyck) language consists of the interleaving of two or more Dyck languages, where each Dyck language represents a set of strings of balanced parentheses.InterDyck-reachability is a fundamental framework for program analyzers that simultaneously track multiple properly-matched pairs of actions such as call/return, lock/unlock, or write-data/read-data.Existing InterDyck-reachability algorithms are based on the well-known tabulation technique.

    This paper presents a new perspective on solving InterDyck-reachability. Our key observation is that for the single-source-single-target InterDyck-reachability variant, it is feasible to summarize all paths from the source node to the target node based onpath expressions. Therefore, InterDyck-reachability becomes an InterDyck-path-recognition problem over path expressions. Instead of computing summary edges as in traditional tabulation algorithms, this new perspective enables us to express InterDyck-reachability as aparenthesis-countingproblem, which can be naturally formulated via integer linear programming (ILP).

    We implemented our ILP-based algorithm and performed extensive evaluations based on two client analyses (a reachability analysis for concurrent programs and a taint analysis). In particular, we evaluated our algorithm against two types of algorithms: (1) the general all-pairs InterDyck-reachability algorithms based on linear conjunctive language (LCL) reachability and synchronized pushdown system (SPDS) reachability, and (2) two domain-specific algorithms for both client analyses. The experimental results are encouraging. Our algorithm achieves 1.42×, 28.24×, and 11.76× speedup for the concurrency-analysis benchmarks compared to all-pair LCL-reachability, SPDS-reachability, and domain-specific tools, respectively; 1.2×, 69.9×, and 0.98× speedup for the taint-analysis benchmarks. Moreover, the algorithm also provides precision improvements, particularly for taint analysis, where it achieves 4.55%, 11.1%, and 6.8% improvement, respectively.

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  2. We consider the problem of establishing that a program-synthesis problem is unrealizable (i.e., has no solution in a given search space of programs). Prior work on unrealizability has developed some automatic techniques to establish that a problem is unrealizable; however, these techniques are all black-box , meaning that they conceal the reasoning behind why a synthesis problem is unrealizable. In this paper, we present a Hoare-style reasoning system, called unrealizability logic for establishing that a program-synthesis problem is unrealizable. To the best of our knowledge, unrealizability logic is the first proof system for overapproximating the execution of an infinite set of imperative programs. The logic provides a general, logical system for building checkable proofs about unrealizability. Similar to how Hoare logic distills the fundamental concepts behind algorithms and tools to prove the correctness of programs, unrealizability logic distills into a single logical system the fundamental concepts that were hidden within prior tools capable of establishing that a program-synthesis problem is unrealizable. 
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  3. This paper addresses the problem of creating abstract transformers automatically. The method we present automates the construction of static analyzers in a fashion similar to the way yacc automates the construction of parsers. Our method treats the problem as a program-synthesis problem. The user provides specifications of (i) the concrete semantics of a given operation op , (ii) the abstract domain A to be used by the analyzer, and (iii) the semantics of a domain-specific language L in which the abstract transformer is to be expressed. As output, our method creates an abstract transformer for op in abstract domain A , expressed in L (an “ L -transformer for op over A ”). Moreover, the abstract transformer obtained is a most-precise L -transformer for op over A ; that is, there is no other L -transformer for op over A that is strictly more precise. We implemented our method in a tool called AMURTH. We used AMURTH to create sets of replacement abstract transformers for those used in two existing analyzers, and obtained essentially identical performance. However, when we compared the existing transformers with the transformers obtained using AMURTH, we discovered that four of the existing transformers were unsound, which demonstrates the risk of using manually created transformers. 
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  4. Many program-analysis problems can be formulated as graph-reachability problems. Interleaved Dyck language reachability ( InterDyck -reachability) is a fundamental framework to express a wide variety of program-analysis problems over edge-labeled graphs. The InterDyck language represents an intersection of multiple matched-parenthesis languages (i.e., Dyck languages). In practice, program analyses typically leverage one Dyck language to achieve context-sensitivity, and other Dyck languages to model data dependencies, such as field-sensitivity and pointer references/dereferences. In the ideal case, an InterDyck -reachability framework should model multiple Dyck languages simultaneously . Unfortunately, precise InterDyck -reachability is undecidable. Any practical solution must over-approximate the exact answer. In the literature, a lot of work has been proposed to over-approximate the InterDyck -reachability formulation. This article offers a new perspective on improving both the precision and the scalability of InterDyck -reachability: we aim at simplifying the underlying input graph G . Our key insight is based on the observation that if an edge is not contributing to any InterDyck -paths, we can safely eliminate it from G . Our technique is orthogonal to the InterDyck -reachability formulation and can serve as a pre-processing step with any over-approximating approach for InterDyck -reachability. We have applied our graph simplification algorithm to pre-processing the graphs from a recent InterDyck -reachability-based taint analysis for Android. Our evaluation of three popular InterDyck -reachability algorithms yields promising results. In particular, our graph-simplification method improves both the scalability and precision of all three InterDyck -reachability algorithms, sometimes dramatically. 
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  5. This paper is a tutorial on algebraic program analysis. It explains the foundations of algebraic program analysis, its strengths and limitations, and gives examples of algebraic program analyses for numerical invariant generation and termination analysis. 
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  6. null (Ed.)
    Probabilistic programming languages aim to describe and automate Bayesian modeling and inference. Modern languages support programmable inference, which allows users to customize inference algorithms by incorporating guide programs to improve inference performance. For Bayesian inference to be sound, guide programs must be compatible with model programs. One pervasive but challenging condition for model-guide compatibility is absolute continuity, which requires that the model and guide programs define probability distributions with the same support. This paper presents a new probabilistic programming language that guarantees absolute continuity, and features general programming constructs, such as branching and recursion. Model and guide programs are implemented as coroutines that communicate with each other to synchronize the set of random variables they sample during their execution. Novel guide types describe and enforce communication protocols between coroutines. If the model and guide are well-typed using the same protocol, then they are guaranteed to enjoy absolute continuity. An efficient algorithm infers guide types from code so that users do not have to specify the types. The new programming language is evaluated with an implementation that includes the type-inference algorithm and a prototype compiler that targets Pyro. Experiments show that our language is capable of expressing a variety of probabilistic models with nontrivial control flow and recursion, and that the coroutine-based computation does not introduce significant overhead in actual Bayesian inference. 
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  7. null (Ed.)
    For probabilistic programs, it is usually not possible to automatically derive exact information about their properties, such as the distribution of states at a given program point. Instead, one can attempt to derive approximations, such as upper bounds on tail probabilities. Such bounds can be obtained via concentration inequalities, which rely on the moments of a distribution, such as the expectation (the first raw moment) or the variance (the second central moment). Tail bounds obtained using central moments are often tighter than the ones obtained using raw moments, but automatically analyzing central moments is more challenging. This paper presents an analysis for probabilistic programs that automatically derives symbolic upper and lower bounds on variances, as well as higher central moments, of cost accumulators. To overcome the challenges of higher-moment analysis, it generalizes analyses for expectations with an algebraic abstraction that simultaneously analyzes different moments, utilizing relations between them. A key innovation is the notion of moment-polymorphic recursion, and a practical derivation system that handles recursive functions. The analysis has been implemented using a template-based technique that reduces the inference of polynomial bounds to linear programming. Experiments with our prototype central-moment analyzer show that, despite the analyzer’s upper/lower bounds on various quantities, it obtains tighter tail bounds than an existing system that uses only raw moments, such as expectations. 
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  8. null (Ed.)
    Many program analyses need to reason about pairs of matching actions, such as call/return, lock/unlock, or set-field/get-field. The family of Dyck languages { D k }, where D k has k kinds of parenthesis pairs, can be used to model matching actions as balanced parentheses. Consequently, many program-analysis problems can be formulated as Dyck-reachability problems on edge-labeled digraphs. Interleaved Dyck-reachability (InterDyck-reachability), denoted by D k ⊙ D k -reachability, is a natural extension of Dyck-reachability that allows one to formulate program-analysis problems that involve multiple kinds of matching-action pairs. Unfortunately, the general InterDyck-reachability problem is undecidable. In this paper, we study variants of InterDyck-reachability on bidirected graphs , where for each edge ⟨ p , q ⟩ labeled by an open parenthesis ”( a ”, there is an edge ⟨ q , p ⟩ labeled by the corresponding close parenthesis ”) a ”, and vice versa . Language-reachability on a bidirected graph has proven to be useful both (1) in its own right, as a way to formalize many program-analysis problems, such as pointer analysis, and (2) as a relaxation method that uses a fast algorithm to over-approximate language-reachability on a directed graph. However, unlike its directed counterpart, the complexity of bidirected InterDyck-reachability still remains open. We establish the first decidable variant (i.e., D 1 ⊙ D 1 -reachability) of bidirected InterDyck-reachability. In D 1 ⊙ D 1 -reachability, each of the two Dyck languages is restricted to have only a single kind of parenthesis pair. In particular, we show that the bidirected D 1 ⊙ D 1 problem is in PTIME. We also show that when one extends each Dyck language to involve k different kinds of parentheses (i.e., D k ⊙ D k -reachability with k ≥ 2), the problem is NP-hard (and therefore much harder). We have implemented the polynomial-time algorithm for bidirected D 1 ⊙ D 1 -reachability. D k ⊙ D k -reachability provides a new over-approximation method for bidirected D k ⊙ D k -reachability in the sense that D k ⊙ D k -reachability can first be relaxed to bidirected D 1 ⊙ D 1 -reachability, and then the resulting bidirected D 1 ⊙ D 1 -reachability problem is solved precisely. We compare this D 1 ⊙ D 1 -reachability-based approach against another known over-approximating D k ⊙ D k -reachability algorithm. Surprisingly, we found that the over-approximation approach based on bidirected D 1 ⊙ D 1 -reachability computes more precise solutions, even though the D 1 ⊙ D 1 formalism is inherently less expressive than the D k ⊙ D k formalism. 
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  9. null (Ed.)