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  1. The growth of atomic layer deposited (ALD) Al2O3 on planar ZnSe substrates is studied using in situ spectroscopic ellipsometry. An untreated ZnSe surface requires an incubation period of 27 cycles of ALD Al2O3 before film growth is observed. Pretreating the surface with an ultraviolet generated ozone lowers the incubation to 17 cycles, whereas a plasma-enhanced ALD Al2O3 process can further lower the incubation period to 13 cycles. The use of ozone or plasma-activated oxygen species on ZnSe is found to create ZnO and SeO2, which are responsible for converting ZnSe from a hydrophobic to a hydrophilic surface. The interfacial layer between Al2O3 and ZnSe is mapped using high-resolution transmission electron microscopy and scanning transmission electron microscopy/energy dispersive spectroscopy. SeO2 is volatile and leaves a zinc-rich interface, which is 4.3 nm thick for the ultraviolet generated ozone pretreated sample and 2.5 nm for the plasma-enhanced ALD process.

     
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  2. Free, publicly-accessible full text available October 1, 2024
  3. Abstract

    The development of compact and fieldable mid-infrared (mid-IR) spectroscopy devices represents a critical challenge for distributed sensing with applications from gas leak detection to environmental monitoring. Recent work has focused on mid-IR photonic integrated circuit (PIC) sensing platforms and waveguide-integrated mid-IR light sources and detectors based on semiconductors such as PbTe, black phosphorus and tellurene. However, material bandgaps and reliance on SiO2substrates limit operation to wavelengthsλ ≲ 4 μm. Here we overcome these challenges with a chalcogenide glass-on-CaF2PIC architecture incorporating split-gate photothermoelectric graphene photodetectors. Our design extends operation toλ = 5.2 μm with a Johnson noise-limited noise-equivalent power of 1.1 nW/Hz1/2, no fall-off in photoresponse up tof = 1 MHz, and a predicted 3-dB bandwidth off3dB > 1 GHz. This mid-IR PIC platform readily extends to longer wavelengths and opens the door to applications from distributed gas sensing and portable dual comb spectroscopy to weather-resilient free space optical communications.

     
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  4. Mid-infrared photonic integrated circuits (PICs) that combine on-chip light sources with other optical components constitute a key enabler for applications such as chemical sensing, light detection, ranging, and free-space communications. In this paper, we report the monolithic integration of interband cascade lasers emitting at 3.24 µm with passive, high-index-contrast waveguides made of chalcogenide glasses. Output from the chalcogenide waveguides exhibits pulsed peak power up to 150 mW (without roll-over), threshold current density 280 A/cm2, and slope efficiency 100 mW/A at 300 K, with a lower bound of 38% efficiency for coupling between the two waveguides. These results represent an important step toward the realization of fully integrated mid-infrared PICs.

     
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  5. The manufacturing of low loss chalcogenide glasses (ChGs) for optoelectronic applications is ultimately defined by the concentration of impurities present in starting materials or imparted via processing. We describe a rapid method for purifying metallic starting materials in As2Se3glass where oxide reduction is correlated to optical and physical properties. Specifically, As-O reduction enhances the glass’ dual-band optical transparency proportional to the extent (13-fold reduction) of oxide reduction, and is accompanied by a change in density and hardness associated with changes in matrix bonding. A significant modification of the glass’ index and LWIR Abbe number is reported highlighting the significant impact purification has on material dispersion control required in optical designs.

     
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  6. null (Ed.)
  7. 3D photonics promises to expand the reach of photonics by enabling the extension of traditional applications to nonplanar geometries and adding novel functionalities that cannot be attained with planar devices. Available material options and device geometries are, however, limited by current fabrication methods. In this work, we pioneer a method that allows for placement of integrated photonic device arrays at arbitrary predefined locations in 3D using a fabrication process that capitalizes on the buckling of a 2D pattern. We present theoretical and experimental validation of the deterministic buckling process, thus demonstrating implementation of the technique to realize what we believe to be the first fully packaged 3D integrated photonics platform. Application of the platform for mechanical strain sensing is further demonstrated.

     
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  8. Owing to their unique tunable optical properties, chalcogenide phase change materials are increasingly being investigated for optics and photonics applications. However, in situ characterization of their phase transition characteristics is a capability that remains inaccessible to many researchers. Herein, a multifunctional silicon microheater platform capable of in situ measurement of structural, kinetic, optical, and thermal properties of these materials is introduced. The platform can be fabricated leveraging industry‐standard silicon foundry manufacturing processes. This platform is fully open‐sourced, including complete hardware design and associated software codes.

     
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  9. The extraordinary optical properties of single-layer graphene have spurred the development of a variety of photonic components. We have previously demonstrated a scalable and versatile platform to facilitate the integration of graphene and other 2-D materials with chalcogenide glass-based planar photonics. In this paper, we detail the design criteria and optimization guidelines towards high-performance graphene-integrated thermo-optic (TO) switches based on the chalcogenide glass-on-graphene platform. Notably, absorption loss of graphene can be reduced to < 20 dB/cm when it is sandwiched inside photonic structures capitalizing on the anisotropic absorption property of graphene. We quantify energy efficiency of the TO switch, showing that the choice of cladding materials plays a critical role in improving device efficiency. Furthermore, we report a record TO switching efficiency of 10 nm/mW via judicious engineering of the overlap between optical mode and thermal profile.

     
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