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  1. The wave nature of light sets a fundamental diffraction limit that challenges confinement and control of light in nanoscale structures with dimensions significantly smaller than the wavelength. Here, we study light–matter interaction in van der Waals MoS2nanophotonic devices. We show that light can be coupled and guided in structures with dimensions as small as ≃λ/16 (∼60nm at 1000 nm excitation wavelength), while offering unprecedented optical field confinement. This deep subwavelength optical field confinement is achieved by exploiting strong lightwave dispersion in MoS2. We further study the performance of a range of nanophotonic integrated devices via far- and near-field measurements. Our near-field measurements reveal detailed imaging of excitation, evolution, and guidance of fields in nanostructured MoS2, whereas our far-field study examines light excitation and coupling to highly confined integrated photonics. Nanophotonics at a fraction of a wavelength demonstrated here could dramatically reduce the size of integrated photonic devices and opto-electronic circuits with potential applications in optical information science and engineering.

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  2. Free, publicly-accessible full text available July 1, 2024
  3. The combination of photonic integrated circuits and free-space metaoptics has the ability to untie technological knots that require advanced light manipulation due to their conjoined ability to achieve strong light–matter interaction via wave-guiding light over a long distance and shape them via large space-bandwidth product. Rapid prototyping of such a compound system requires component interchangeability. This represents a functional challenge in terms of fabrication and alignment of high-performance optical systems. Here, we report a flexible and interchangeable interface between a photonic integrated circuit and the free space using an array of low-loss metaoptics and demonstrate multifunctional beam shaping at a wavelength of 780 nm. We show that robust and high-fidelity operation of the designed optical functions can be achieved without prior precise characterization of the free-space input nor stringent alignment between the photonic integrated chip and the metaoptics chip. A diffraction limited spot of ∼3 μm for a hyperboloid metalens of numerical aperture 0.15 is achieved despite an input Gaussian elliptical deformation of up to 35% and misalignments of the components of up to 20 μm. A holographic image with a peak signal-to-noise ratio of >10 dB is also reported. 
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    Free, publicly-accessible full text available May 1, 2024
  4. We demonstrated a nonvolatile electrically reconfigurable metasurface based on low-loss phase-change materials Sb2Se3with phase-only (~0.25π) modulation in the free-space. The tunable metasurface is robust against reversible switching over 1,000 times.

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  5. Polythiophenes (PTs) constitute a diverse array of promising materials for conducting polymer applications. However, many of the synthetic methods to produce PTs have been optimized only for the prototypical alkyl-substituted example poly(3-hexylthiophene) (P3HT). Improvement of these methods beyond P3HT is key to enabling the widespread application of PTs. In this work, P3HT and two ether-substituted PTs poly(2-dodecyl-2H,3H-thieno[3,4-b][1,4]dioxine) (PEDOT-C12) and poly(3,4-bis(hexyloxy)thiophene) (PBHOT) are synthesized by the FeCl3-initiated oxidative method under different conditions. Polymerization was carried out according to a common literature procedure (“reverse addition”) and a modified method (“standard addition”), which differ by the solvent system and the order of addition of reagents to the reaction mixture. Gel-permeation chromatography (GPC) was performed to determine the impact of the different methods on the molecular weights (Mw) and degree of polymerization (Xw) of the polymers relative to polystyrene standards. The standard addition method produced ether-substituted PTs with higher Mw and Xw than those produced using the reverse addition method for sterically unhindered monomers. For P3HT, the highest Mw and Xw were obtained using the reverse addition method. The results show the oxidation potential of the monomer and solution has the greatest impact on the yield and Xw obtained and should be carefully considered when optimizing the reaction conditions for different monomers. 
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  6. Abstract

    A key obstacle for all quantum information science and engineering platforms is their lack of scalability. The discovery of emergent quantum phenomena and their applications in active photonic quantum technologies have been dominated by work with single atoms, self‐assembled quantum dots, or single solid‐state defects. Unfortunately, scaling these systems to many quantum nodes remains a significant challenge. Solution‐processed quantum materials are uniquely positioned to address this challenge, but the quantum properties of these materials have remained generally inferior to those of solid‐state emitters or atoms. Additionally, systematic integration of solution‐processed materials with dielectric nanophotonic structures has been rare compared to other solid‐state systems. Recent progress in synthesis processes and nanophotonic engineering, however, has demonstrated promising results, including long coherence times of emitted single photons and deterministic integration of emitters with dielectric nano‐cavities. In this review article, these recent experiments using solution‐processed quantum materials and dielectric nanophotonic structures are discussed. The progress in non‐classical light state generation, exciton‐polaritonics for quantum simulation, and spin‐physics in these materials is discussed and an outlook for this emerging research field is provided.

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