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  1. Free, publicly-accessible full text available June 20, 2023
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  4. We consider node-weighted survivable network design (SNDP) in planar graphs and minor-closed families of graphs. The input consists of a node-weighted undirected graph G = ( V , E ) and integer connectivity requirements r ( uv ) for each unordered pair of nodes uv . The goal is to find a minimum weighted subgraph H of G such that H contains r ( uv ) disjoint paths between u and v for each node pair uv . Three versions of the problem are edge-connectivity SNDP (EC-SNDP), element-connectivity SNDP (Elem-SNDP), and vertex-connectivity SNDP (VC-SNDP), depending on whether the paths are required to be edge, element, or vertex disjoint, respectively. Our main result is an O ( k )-approximation algorithm for EC-SNDP and Elem-SNDP when the input graph is planar or more generally if it belongs to a proper minor-closed family of graphs; here, k = max  uv r ( uv ) is the maximum connectivity requirement. This improves upon the O ( k log  n )-approximation known for node-weighted EC-SNDP and Elem-SNDP in general graphs [31]. We also obtain an O (1) approximation for node-weighted VC-SNDP when the connectivity requirements are in {0, 1, 2}; for higher connectivity our resultmore »for Elem-SNDP can be used in a black-box fashion to obtain a logarithmic factor improvement over currently known general graph results. Our results are inspired by, and generalize, the work of Demaine, Hajiaghayi, and Klein [13], who obtained constant factor approximations for node-weighted Steiner tree and Steiner forest problems in planar graphs and proper minor-closed families of graphs via a primal-dual algorithm.« less
  5. Belkin, Mikhail ; Kpotufe, Samor (Ed.)
    We present an $e^{O(p)} (\log \ell) / (\log \log \ell)$-approximation algorithm for socially fair clustering with the $\ell_p$-objective. In this problem, we are given a set of points in a metric space. Each point belongs to one (or several) of $\ell$ groups. The goal is to find a $k$-medians, $k$-means, or, more generally, $\ell_p$-clustering that is simultaneously good for all of the groups. More precisely, we need to find a set of $k$ centers $C$ so as to minimize the maximum over all groups $j$ of $\sum_{u \text{ in group } j} d(u, C)^p$. The socially fair clustering problem was independently proposed by Abbasi, Bhaskara, and Venkatasubramanian (2021) and Ghadiri, Samadi, and Vempala (2021). Our algorithm improves and generalizes their $O(\ell)$-approximation algorithms for the problem. The natural LP relaxation for the problem has an integrality gap of $\Omega(\ell)$. In order to obtain our result, we introduce a strengthened LP relaxation and show that it has an integrality gap of $\Theta((\log \ell) / (\log \log \ell))$ for a fixed p. Additionally, we present a bicriteria approximation algorithm, which generalizes the bicriteria approximation of Abbasi et al. (2021).
  6. A graph spanner is a fundamental graph structure that faithfully preserves the pairwise distances in the input graph up to a small multiplicative stretch. The common objective in the computation of spanners is to achieve the best-known existential size-stretch trade-off efficiently. Classical models and algorithmic analysis of graph spanners essentially assume that the algorithm can read the input graph, construct the desired spanner, and write the answer to the output tape. However, when considering massive graphs containing millions or even billions of nodes not only the input graph, but also the output spanner might be too large for a single processor to store. To tackle this challenge, we initiate the study of local computation algorithms (LCAs) for graph spanners in general graphs, where the algorithm should locally decide whether a given edge (u,v)∈E belongs to the output spanner. Such LCAs give the user the `illusion' that a specific sparse spanner for the graph is maintained, without ever fully computing it. We present the following results: -For general n-vertex graphs and r∈{2,3}, there exists an LCA for (2r−1)-spanners with O˜(n1+1/r) edges and sublinear probe complexity of O˜(n1−1/2r). These size/stretch tradeoffs are best possible (up to polylogarithmic factors). -For every k≥1 andmore »n-vertex graph with maximum degree Δ, there exists an LCA for O(k2) spanners with O˜(n1+1/k) edges, probe complexity of O˜(Δ4n2/3), and random seed of size polylog(n). This improves upon, and extends the work of [Lenzen-Levi, 2018]. We also complement our results by providing a polynomial lower bound on the probe complexity of LCAs for graph spanners that holds even for the simpler task of computing a sparse connected subgraph with o(m) edges.« less