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  1. A reconfigurable phononic crystal (PnC) is proposed where elastic properties can be modulated by rotation of asymmetric solid scatterers immersed in water. The scatterers are metallic rods with a cross section of 120◦ circular sector. Orientation of each rod is independently controlled by an external electric motor that allows continuous variation of the local scattering parameters and dispersion of sound in the entire crystal. Due to asymmetry of the scatterers, the crystal band structure possesses highly anisotropic band gaps. Synchronous rotation of all the scatterers by a definite angle changes the regime of reflection to the regime of transmission and vice versa. The same mechanically tunable structure functions as a gradient index medium by incremental, angular reorientation of rods along both row and column, and, subsequently, can serve as a tunable acoustic lens, an acoustic beam splitter, and finally an acoustic beam steerer. 
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  2. Defect mode induced energy trapping at the bandgap frequency of a phononic crystal has been widely explored. Unlike this extensively used mechanism, this work reports the use of nonreciprocity in the transmission band to trap energy inside a phononic crystal cavity. Passive nonreciprocity is due to natural viscosity of the background liquid (water) and asymmetry of aluminum scatterers. The level of nonresonant energy trapping was compared for three cavities with different symmetry. Enhancement of energy trapping at a frequency of 624 kHz was observed experimentally for the cavity where nonreciprocity suppresses acoustic radiation into environment. Experimental results were further investigated and confirmed using finite element numerical analysis. 
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  3. The square lattice phononic crystal (PnC) has been used extensively to demonstrate metamaterial effects. Here, positive and negative refraction and reflection are observed simultaneously due to the presence of Umklapp scattering of sound at the surface of PnC and square-like equifrequency contours (EFCs). It is found that a shift in the EFC of the third transmission band away from the center of the Brillouin zone results in an effectively inverted EFC. The overlap of the EFC of the second and third band produce quasimomentum-matching conditions that lead to multi-refringence phenomena from a single incident beam without the introduction of defects into the lattice. Additionally, the coupling of a near-normal incident wave to a propagating almost perpendicular Bloch mode is shown to lead to strong right-angle redirection and collimation of the incident acoustic beam. Each effect is demonstrated both numerically and experimentally for scattering of ultrasound at a 10-period PnC slab in water environment. 
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  4. null (Ed.)
    Abstract Practically applied techniques for ultrasonic biomedical imaging employ delay-and-sum (DAS) beamforming which can resolve two objects down to 2.1 λ within the acoustic Fresnel zone. Here, we demonstrate a phononic metamaterial lens (ML) for detection of laterally subwavelength object features in tissue-like phantoms beyond the phononic crystal evanescent zone and Fresnel zone of the emitter. The ML produces metamaterial collimation that spreads 8x less than the emitting transducer. Utilizing collimation, 3.6x greater lateral resolution beyond the Fresnel zone limit was achieved. Both hard objects and tissue approximating masses were examined in gelatin tissue phantoms near the Fresnel zone limit. Lateral dimensions and separation were resolved down to 0.50 λ for hard objects, with tissue approximating masses slightly higher at 0.73 λ . The work represents the application of a metamaterial for spatial characterization, and subwavelength resolution in a biosystem beyond the Fresnel zone limit. 
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  5. null (Ed.)
    It is demonstrated that acoustic transmission through a phononic crystal with anisotropic solid scatterers becomes non-reciprocal if the background fluid is viscous. In an ideal (inviscid) fluid, the transmission along the direction of broken P symmetry is asymmetric. This asymmetry is compatible with reciprocity since time-reversal symmetry ( T symmetry) holds. Viscous losses break T symmetry, adding a non-reciprocal contribution to the transmission coefficient. The non-reciprocal transmission spectra for a phononic crystal of metallic circular cylinders in water are experimentally obtained and analysed. The surfaces of the cylinders were specially processed in order to weakly break P symmetry and increase viscous losses through manipulation of surface features. Subsequently, the non-reciprocal part of transmission is separated from its asymmetric reciprocal part in numerically simulated transmission spectra. The level of non-reciprocity is in agreement with the measure of broken P symmetry. The reported study contradicts commonly accepted opinion that linear dissipation cannot be a reason leading to non-reciprocity. It also opens a way for engineering passive acoustic diodes exploring the natural viscosity of any fluid as a factor leading to non-reciprocity. 
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  6. null (Ed.)
  7. Abstract

    Linear spreading of a wave packet or a Gaussian beam is a fundamental effect known in evolution of quantum state and propagation of optical/acoustic beams. The rate of spreading is determined by the diffraction coefficientDwhich is proportional to the curvature of the isofrequency surface. Here, we analyzed dispersion of sound in a solid-fluid layered structure and found a flex point on the isofrequency curve whereDvanishes for given direction of propagation and frequency. Nonspreading propagation is experimentally observed in a water steel lattice of 75 periods (~1 meter long) and occurs in the regime of anomalous dispersion and strong acoustic anisotropy when the effective mass along periodicity is close to zero. Under these conditions the incoming beam experiences negative refraction of phase velocity leading to backward wave propagation. The observed effect is explained using a complete set of dynamical equations and our effective medium theory.

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  8. —Ultrasound is a continually developing technology that is broadly used for fast, non-destructive mechanical property detection of hard and soft materials in applications ranging from manufacturing to biomedical. In this study, a novel monostatic longitudinal ultrasonic pulsing elastography imaging method is introduced. Existing elastography methods require an acoustic radiational or dynamic compressive externally applied force to determine the effective bulk modulus or density. This new, passive M-mode imaging technique does not require an external stress, and can be effectively utilized for both soft and hard materials. Strain map imaging and shear wave elastography are two current categories of M-mode imaging that show both relative and absolute elasticity information. The new technique is applied to hard materials and soft material tissue phantoms for demonstrating effective bulk modulus and effective density mapping. As compared to standard techniques, the effective parameters fall within 10% of standard characterization methods for both hard and soft materials. As neither the standard A-mode imaging technique nor the presented technique require an external applied force, the techniques are applied to composite heterostructures and the findings presented for comparison. The presented passive M-mode technique is found to have enhanced resolution over standard A-mode modalities. 
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  9. Abstract

    A coupled resonant acoustic waveguide (CRAW) in a phononic crystal (PnC) was engineered to manipulate the propagation of ultrasonic waves within a conventional phononic bandgap for wavelength division multiplexing. The PnC device included two, forked, distinct CRAW waveguide channels that exhibited strong frequency and mode selectivity. Each branch was composed of cavities of differing volumes, with each giving rise to deep and shallow ‘impurity’ states. These states were utilized to select frequency windows where transmission along the channels was suppressed distinctly for each channel. Though completely a linear system, the mode sensitivity of each CRAW waveguide channel produced apparent nonlinear power dependence along each branch. Nonlinearity in the system arises from the combination of the mode sensitivity of each CRAW channel and small variations in the shape of the incident wavefront as a function of input power. The all-acoustic effect was then leveraged to realize an ultrasonic, spatial signal modulator, and logic element operating at 398 and 450 kHz using input power.

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