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  1. Abstract

    Spatially resolved in situ transmission electron microscopy (TEM), equipped with direct electron detection systems, is a suitable technique to record information about the atom-scale dynamics with millisecond temporal resolution from materials. However, characterizing dynamics or fluxional behavior requires processing short time exposure images which usually have severely degraded signal-to-noise ratios. The poor signal-to-noise associated with high temporal resolution makes it challenging to determine the position and intensity of atomic columns in materials undergoing structural dynamics. To address this challenge, we propose a noise-robust, processing approach based on blob detection, which has been previously established for identifying objects in images in the community of computer vision. In particular, a blob detection algorithm has been tailored to deal with noisy TEM image series from nanoparticle systems. In the presence of high noise content, our blob detection approach is demonstrated to outperform the results of other algorithms, enabling the determination of atomic column position and its intensity with a higher degree of precision.

  2. With the rising need for on-body biometric sensing, the development of wearable electrophysiological sensors has been faster than ever. Surface electrodes placed on the skin need to be robust in order to measure biopotentials from the body reliably and comfortable for extended wearability. The electrical stability of nonpolarizable silver/silver chloride (Ag/AgCl) and its low-cost, commercial production have made these electrodes ubiquitous health sensors in the clinical environment, where wet gels and long wires are accommodated by patient immobility. However, smaller, dry electrodes with wireless acquisition are essential for truly wearable, continuous health sensing. Currently, techniques for the robust fabrication of custom Ag/AgCl electrodes are lacking. Here, we present three methods for the fabrication of Ag/AgCl electrodes: oxidizing Ag in a chlorine solution, electroplating Ag, and curing Ag/AgCl ink. Each of these methods is then used to create three different electrode shapes for wearable application. Bench-top and on-body evaluation of the electrode techniques was achieved by electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS), calculation of variance in electrocardiogram (ECG) measurements, and analysis of auditory steady-state response (ASSR) measurement. Microstructures produced on the electrode by each fabrication technique were also investigated with scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDX). The custom Ag/AgCl electrodesmore »were found to be efficient in comparison with standard, commercial Ag/AgCl wet electrodes across all three of our presented techniques, with Ag/AgCl ink shown to be the better out of the three in bench-top and biometric recordings.« less
  3. We present a neural interface system-on-chip (NISoC) with 1,024 channels of simultaneous electrical recording and stimulation for high-resolution high-throughput electrophysiology. The 2mm  2mm NISoC in 65nm CMOS integrates a 32  32 array of electrodes vertically coupled to analog front-ends supporting both voltage and current clamping through a programmable interface, ranging over 100dB in voltage and 120dB in current, with 0.82mW power per channel at 5.96mVrms input-referred voltage noise from DC to 12.5kHz signal bandwidth. This includes onchip acquisition with a back-end array of 32 dynamic incremental SAR ADCs for 25Msps 11-ENOB acquisition at 2fJ/level FOM.