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  1. Abstract

    In the realm of robotics and automation, robot teleoperation, which facilitates human–machine interaction in distant or hazardous settings, has surged in significance. A persistent issue in this domain is the delays between command issuance and action execution, causing negative repercussions on operator situational awareness, performance, and cognitive load. These delays, particularly in long-distance operations, are difficult to mitigate even with the most advanced computing advancements. Current solutions mainly revolve around machine-based adjustments to combat these delays. However, a notable lacuna remains in harnessing human perceptions for an enhanced subjective teleoperation experience. This paper introduces a novel approach of sensory manipulation for induced human adaptation in delayed teleoperation. Drawing from motor learning and rehabilitation principles, it is posited that strategic sensory manipulation, via altered sensory stimuli, can mitigate the subjective feeling of these delays. The focus is not on introducing new skills or adapting to novel conditions; rather, it leverages prior motor coordination experience in the context of delays. The objective is to reduce the need for extensive training or sophisticated automation designs. A human-centered experiment involving 41 participants was conducted to examine the effects of modified haptic cues in teleoperations with delays. These cues were generated from high-fidelity physics engines using parameters from robot-end sensors or physics engine simulations. The results underscored several benefits, notably the considerable reduction in task time and enhanced user perceptions about visual delays. Real-time haptic feedback, or the anchoring method, emerged as a significant contributor to these benefits, showcasing reduced cognitive load, bolstered self-confidence, and minimized frustration. Beyond the prevalent methods of automation design and training, this research underscores induced human adaptation as a pivotal avenue in robot teleoperation. It seeks to enhance teleoperation efficacy through rapid human adaptation, offering insights beyond just optimizing robotic systems for delay compensations.

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  2. Free, publicly-accessible full text available October 2, 2024
  3. Free, publicly-accessible full text available October 1, 2024
  4. Proc. 2023 ACM SIGKDD Int. Conf. on Knowledge Discovery and Data Mining (Ed.)
    Representation learning on networks aims to derive a meaningful vector representation for each node, thereby facilitating downstream tasks such as link prediction, node classification, and node clustering. In heterogeneous text-rich networks, this task is more challenging due to (1) presence or absence of text: Some nodes are associated with rich textual information, while others are not; (2) diversity of types: Nodes and edges of multiple types form a heterogeneous network structure. As pretrained language models (PLMs) have demonstrated their effectiveness in obtaining widely generalizable text representations, a substantial amount of effort has been made to incorporate PLMs into representation learning on text-rich networks. However, few of them can jointly consider heterogeneous structure (network) information as well as rich textual semantic information of each node effectively. In this paper, we propose Heterformer, a Heterogeneous Network-Empowered Transformer that performs contextualized text encoding and heterogeneous structure encoding in a unified model. Specifically, we inject heterogeneous structure information into each Transformer layer when encoding node texts. Meanwhile, Heterformer is capable of characterizing node/edge type heterogeneity and encoding nodes with or without texts. We conduct comprehensive experiments on three tasks (i.e., link prediction, node classification, and node clustering) on three large-scale datasets from different domains, where Heterformer outperforms competitive baselines significantly and consistently. 
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    Free, publicly-accessible full text available August 4, 2024