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  1. Abstract

    Current plans to decarbonize the electric supply system imply that the generation from wind and solar sources will grow substantially. This growth will increase the uncertainty of system operations due to the inherent variability of these renewable sources, and as a result, more reserve capacity will be required to provide the ramping (flexibility) needed for reliable operations. This paper assumes that all of the increased uncertainty comes from wind farms on the grid, and it shows how distributed storage managed locally by aggregators can provide the ramping needed without introducing a separate market for flexibility. This can be accomplished when the aggregators minimize the expected daily cost of the energy purchased from the grid for their customers by submitting optimal bids into the wholesale market with high and low price thresholds for discharging and charging the storage. This model is illustrated using a stochastic multi-period security constrained optimal power flow together with realistic data for a reduction of the network in the Northeast Power Coordinating Council region of the United States. The results show that the bidding strategy for distributed storage provides ramping to the grid just as effectively as storage managed by a system operator.

     
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  2. Free, publicly-accessible full text available May 1, 2024
  3. Early fault detection in rolling element bearings is pivotal for the effective predictive maintenance of rotating machinery. Deep Learning (DL) methods have been widely studied for vibration-based bearing fault diagnostics largely because of their capability to automatically extract fault-related features from raw or processed vibration data. Although most DL models in the current literature can provide fairly accurate classification outputs, the typical diagnostic procedure is performed in an offline environment utilizing powerful computers. This centralized approach can lead to unacceptable delays in safety-critical applications and can prohibit cost-sensitive wireless data collection. Meanwhile, very few studies have reported on deploying DL models on microprocessor-based Industrial Internet of Things (IIoT) devices, where edge computing can give users a real-time evaluation of bearing health without requiring expensive computational infrastructure. This paper demonstrates an IIoT deployment of a physics-informed DL model inside a commercially available wireless vibration sensor for online health classification. The diagnostic model here is developed and trained offline, and the trained model is then deployed inside the embedded system for online prediction. We demonstrate the model’s online diagnostic performance by imitating bearing vibration signals on a vibration shaker and by performing edge computing on the embedded system mounted on the shaker. 
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  4. We have developed a non-cationic transfection vector in the form of bottlebrush polymer-antisense oligonucleotide (ASO) conjugates. Termed pacDNA (polymer-assisted compaction of DNA), these agents show improved biopharmaceutical characteristics and antisense potency in vivo while suppressing non-antisense side effects. Nonetheless, there still is a lack of the mechanistic understanding of the cellular uptake, subcellular trafficking, and gene knockdown with pacDNA. Here, we show that the pacDNA enters human non-small cell lung cancer cells (NCI-H358) predominantly by scavenger receptor-mediated endocytosis and macropinocytosis and trafficks via the endolysosomal pathway within the cell. The pacDNA significantly reduces a target gene expression (KRAS) in the protein level but not in the mRNA level, despite that the transfection of certain free ASOs causes ribonuclease H1 (RNase H)-dependent degradation of KRAS mRNA. In addition, the antisense activity of pacDNA is independent of ASO chemical modification, suggesting that the pacDNA always functions as a steric blocker. 
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  5. null (Ed.)
    Deep integration of nucleic acids with other classes of materials has become the basis of many useful technologies. Among these biohybrids, nucleic acid-containing copolymers have seen rapid development in both chemistry and applications. This review focuses on the various synthetic approaches for accessing nucleic acid–polymer biohybrids spanning post-polymerization conjugation, nucleic acids in polymerization, solid-phase synthesis, and nucleoside/nucleobase-functionalized polymers. We highlight the challenges associated with working with nucleic acids with each approach and the ingenuity of the solutions, with the hope of lowering the entry barrier and inspiring further investigations in this exciting area. 
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  6. Failure prognostics is the process of predicting the remaining useful life (RUL) of machine components, which is vital for the predictive maintenance of industrial machinery. This paper presents a new deep learning approach for failure prognostics of rolling element bearings based on a Long Short-Term Memory (LSTM) predictor trained simultaneously within a Generative Adversarial Network (GAN) architecture. The LSTM predictor takes the current and past observations of a well-defined health index as an input, uses those to forecast the future degradation trajectory, and then derives the RUL. Our proposed approach has three unique features: (1) Defining the bearing failure threshold by adopting an International Organization of Standardization (ISO) standard, making the approach industry-relevant; (2) Employing a GAN-based data augmentation technique to improve the accuracy and robustness of RUL prediction in cases where the deep learning model has access to only a small amount of training data; (3) Integrating the training process of the LSTM predictor within the GAN architecture. A joint training approach is utilized to ensure that the LSTM predictor model learns both the original and artificially generated data to capture the degradation trajectories. We utilize a publicly available accelerated run-to-failure dataset of rolling element bearings to assess the performance of the proposed approach. Results of a five-fold cross-validation study show that the integration of the LSTM predictor with GAN helps to decrease the average RUL prediction error by 29% over a simple LSTM model without GAN implementation. 
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  7. null (Ed.)