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  1. Background Porosity and other defects resultant by additive manufacturing processes are well-known to affect mechanical properties. However, there remains limited understanding regarding how the internal defect structure influences the evolution of the local strain field, as experimental investigations have not presented direct measurements of the evolving internal strain field in the presence of defects. Objective Interrupted in-situ tensile tests in a lab-based X-ray computed tomography machine were used to investigate the evolution of the strain field around internal defects. The evolution of the internal strain field facilitated examination of the role of specific defects in the macroscopic deformation of additively manufactured tensile coupons. Methods Samples were produced in 316L stainless steel by laser powder bed fusion. An in situ loading device was utilized to subject the samples to tensile failure within a tomographic scanning environment. Digital volume correlation was utilized to directly determine local strain levels within the additively manufactured components in the vicinity of porosity defects. Results Effects of porosity on strain localization and eventual failure of the samples were evaluated. Characteristics of the porosity distribution, including presence of porosity at the surface or near-surface of components, as well as the proximity of pores to each other were found to influence the evolution of failure. Early onset of failure was found to be associated with the availability of neighboring porosity that allowed for rapid progression of the fracture path. Conclusions The direct measurements of strain field evolution in the present study established understanding regarding how internal defect structure characteristics influence the evolution of the local strain field for additively manufactured components. This high fidelity characterization and the associated phenomenological observations have bearing for supporting validation of numerical modeling frameworks for describing failure in these materials. 
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    Abstract Digital manufacturing technologies have quickly become ubiquitous in the manufacturing industry. The transformation commonly referred to as the fourth industrial revolution, or Industry 4.0, has ushered in a wide range of communication technologies, connection mechanisms, and data analysis capabilities. These technologies provide powerful tools to create more lean, profitable, and data-driven manufacturing processes. This paper reviews modern communication technologies and connection architectures for Digital Manufacturing and Industry 4.0 applications. An introduction to cyber-physical systems and a review of digital manufacturing trends is followed by an overview of data acquisition methods for manufacturing processes. Numerous communication protocols are presented and discussed for connecting disparate machines and processes. Flexible data architectures are discussed, and examples of machine monitoring implementations are provided. Finally, select implementations of these communication protocols and architectures are surveyed with recommendations for future architecture implementations. 
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