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Redirected walking techniques use rotational gains to guide users away from physical obstacles as they walk in a virtual world, effectively creating the illusion of a larger virtual space than is physically present. Designers often want to keep users unaware of this manipulation, which is made possible by limitations in human perception that render rotational gains imperceptible below a certain threshold. Many aspects of these thresholds have been studied, however no research has yet considered whether these thresholds may change over time as users gain more experience with them. To study this, we recruited 20 novice VR users (no more than 1 hour of prior experience with an HMD) and provided them with an Oculus Quest to use for four weeks on their own time. They were tasked to complete an activity assessing their sensitivity to rotational gain once each week, in addition to whatever other activities they wanted to perform. No feedback was provided to participants about their performance during each activity, minimizing the possibility of learning effects accounting for any observed changes over time. We observed that participants became significantly more sensitive to rotation gains over time, underscoring the importance of considering prior user experience in applications involving rotational gain, as well as how prior user experience may affect other, broader applications of VR.more » « less
This work explored how users’ sensitivity to offsets in their avatars’ virtual hands changes as they gain exposure to virtual reality. We conducted an experiment using a two-alternative forced choice (2-AFC) design over the course of four weeks, split into four sessions. The trials in each session had a variety of eight offset distances paired with eight offset directions (across a 2D plane). While we did not find evidence that users became more sensitive to the offsets over time, we did find evidence of behavioral changes. Specifically, participants’ head-hand coordination and completion time varied significantly as the sessions went on. We discuss the implications of both results and how they could influence our understanding of long-term calibration for perception-action coordination in virtual environments.more » « less
Since the release of the Oculus Rift CV1 in 2016, millionsof VR headsets have found their way into consumer homes.In this paper, we sought to understand what shifts have takenplace within the two years since consumer VR became avail-able. In this paper, we consider what can be learned aboutlong-term use of consumer VR through an analysis of dis-cussions in online forums devoted to VR. We gathered postsmade on the /r/Vive subreddit from the first two years after theHTC Vive’s release. We present the results from an in-depthqualitative analysis concerning immersion, presence, and sim-ulator sickness. Over time, as users moved from passive toactive, their attitudes and expectations towards immersion andsimulator sickness matured. Major trends of interest foundwere game design implementation and locomotion techniques.more » « less
Impossible spaces have been used to increase the amount of virtual space available for real walking within a constrained physical space. In this technique, multiple virtual rooms are allowed to occupy overlapping portions of the physical space, in a way which is not possible in real euclidean space. Prior work has explored detection thresholds for impossible spaces, however very little work has considered other aspects of how impossible spaces alter participants' perception of spatial relationships within virtual environments. In this paper, we present a within-subjects study $(n=30)$ investigating how impossible spaces altered participants perceptions of the location of objects placed in different rooms. Participants explored three layouts with varying amounts of overlap between rooms and then pointed in the direction of various objects they had been tasked to locate. Significantly more error was observed when pointing at objects in overlapping spaces as compared to the non-overlapping layout. Further analysis suggests that participants pointed towards where objects would be located in the non-overlapping layout, regardless of how much overlap was present. This suggests that, when participants are not aware that any manipulation is present, they automatically adapt their representation of the spaces based on judgments of relative size and visible constraints on the size of the whole system.more » « less
Virtual reality games have grown rapidly in popularity since the first consumer VR head-mounted displays were released in 2016, however comparatively little research has explored how this new medium impacts the experience of players. In this paper, we present a study exploring how user experience changes when playing Minecraft on the desktop and in immersive virtual reality. Fourteen players completed six 45 minute sessions, three played on the desktop and three in VR. The Gaming Experience Questionnaire, the i-Group presence questionnaire, and the Simulator Sickness Questionnaire were administered after each session, and players were interviewed at the end of the experiment. Participants strongly preferred playing Minecraft in VR, despite frustrations with using teleporation as a travel technique and feelings of simulator sickness. Players enjoyed using motion controls, but still continued to use indirect input under certain circumstances. This did not appear to negatively impact feelings of presence. We conclude with four lessons for game developers interested in porting their games to virtual reality.more » « less