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  1. We study the problem of fair k-median where each cluster is required to have a fair representation of individuals from different groups. In the fair representation k-median problem, we are given a set of points X in a metric space. Each point x ∈ X belongs to one of ℓ groups. Further, we are given fair representation parameters αj and β_j for each group j ∈ [ℓ]. We say that a k-clustering C_1, ⋅⋅⋅, C_k fairly represents all groups if the number of points from group j in cluster C_i is between α_j |C_i| and β_j |C_i| for every j ∈ [ℓ] and i ∈ [k]. The goal is to find a set of k centers and an assignment such that the clustering defined by fairly represents all groups and minimizes the ℓ_1-objective ∑_{x ∈ X} d(x, ϕ(x)). We present an O(log k)-approximation algorithm that runs in time n^{O(ℓ)}. Note that the known algorithms for the problem either (i) violate the fairness constraints by an additive term or (ii) run in time that is exponential in both k and ℓ. We also consider an important special case of the problem where and for all j ∈ [ℓ]. For this special case,more »we present an O(log k)-approximation algorithm that runs in time.« less
    Free, publicly-accessible full text available June 20, 2023
  2. Buchin, Kevin ; Colin de Verdiere, Eric (Ed.)
    In this paper, we prove a two-sided variant of the Kirszbraun theorem. Consider an arbitrary subset X of Euclidean space and its superset Y. Let f be a 1-Lipschitz map from X to ℝ^m. The Kirszbraun theorem states that the map f can be extended to a 1-Lipschitz map ̃ f from Y to ℝ^m. While the extension ̃ f does not increase distances between points, there is no guarantee that it does not decrease distances significantly. In fact, ̃ f may even map distinct points to the same point (that is, it can infinitely decrease some distances). However, we prove that there exists a (1 + ε)-Lipschitz outer extension f̃:Y → ℝ^{m'} that does not decrease distances more than "necessary". Namely, ‖f̃(x) - f̃(y)‖ ≥ c √{ε} min(‖x-y‖, inf_{a,b ∈ X} (‖x - a‖ + ‖f(a) - f(b)‖ + ‖b-y‖)) for some absolutely constant c > 0. This bound is asymptotically optimal, since no L-Lipschitz extension g can have ‖g(x) - g(y)‖ > L min(‖x-y‖, inf_{a,b ∈ X} (‖x - a‖ + ‖f(a) - f(b)‖ + ‖b-y‖)) even for a single pair of points x and y. In some applications, one is interested in the distances ‖f̃(x) - f̃(y)‖more »between images of points x,y ∈ Y rather than in the map f̃ itself. The standard Kirszbraun theorem does not provide any method of computing these distances without computing the entire map ̃ f first. In contrast, our theorem provides a simple approximate formula for distances ‖f̃(x) - f̃(y)‖.« less
  3. In the Correlation Clustering problem, we are given a complete weighted graph G with its edges labeled as “similar" and “dissimilar" by a noisy binary classifier. For a clustering C of graph G, a similar edge is in disagreement with C, if its endpoints belong to distinct clusters; and a dissimilar edge is in disagreement with C if its endpoints belong to the same cluster. The disagreements vector is a vector indexed by the vertices of G such that the v-th coordinate of the disagreements vector equals the weight of all disagreeing edges incident on v. The goal is to produce a clustering that minimizes the ℓp norm of the disagreements vector for p≥1. We study the ℓ_p objective in Correlation Clustering under the following assumption: Every similar edge has weight in [αw,w] and every dissimilar edge has weight at least αw (where α ≤ 1 and w > 0 is a scaling parameter). We give an O((1/α)^{1/2−1/(2p)} log 1/α) approximation algorithm for this problem. Furthermore, we show an almost matching convex programming integrality gap.
  4. Meila, Marina ; Zhang, Tong (Ed.)
    In the Correlation Clustering problem, we are given a complete weighted graph $G$ with its edges labeled as “similar" and “dissimilar" by a noisy binary classifier. For a clustering $\mathcal{C}$ of graph $G$, a similar edge is in disagreement with $\mathcal{C}$, if its endpoints belong to distinct clusters; and a dissimilar edge is in disagreement with $\mathcal{C}$ if its endpoints belong to the same cluster. The disagreements vector, $\mathbf{disagree}$, is a vector indexed by the vertices of $G$ such that the $v$-th coordinate $\mathbf{disagree}_v$ equals the weight of all disagreeing edges incident on $v$. The goal is to produce a clustering that minimizes the $\ell_p$ norm of the disagreements vector for $p\geq 1$. We study the $\ell_p$ objective in Correlation Clustering under the following assumption: Every similar edge has weight in $[\alpha\mathbf{w},\mathbf{w}]$ and every dissimilar edge has weight at least $\alpha\mathbf{w}$ (where $\alpha \leq 1$ and $\mathbf{w}>0$ is a scaling parameter). We give an $O\left((\frac{1}{\alpha})^{\frac{1}{2}-\frac{1}{2p}}\cdot \log\frac{1}{\alpha}\right)$ approximation algorithm for this problem. Furthermore, we show an almost matching convex programming integrality gap.
  5. Belkin, Mikhail ; Kpotufe, Samor (Ed.)
    We present an $e^{O(p)} (\log \ell) / (\log \log \ell)$-approximation algorithm for socially fair clustering with the $\ell_p$-objective. In this problem, we are given a set of points in a metric space. Each point belongs to one (or several) of $\ell$ groups. The goal is to find a $k$-medians, $k$-means, or, more generally, $\ell_p$-clustering that is simultaneously good for all of the groups. More precisely, we need to find a set of $k$ centers $C$ so as to minimize the maximum over all groups $j$ of $\sum_{u \text{ in group } j} d(u, C)^p$. The socially fair clustering problem was independently proposed by Abbasi, Bhaskara, and Venkatasubramanian (2021) and Ghadiri, Samadi, and Vempala (2021). Our algorithm improves and generalizes their $O(\ell)$-approximation algorithms for the problem. The natural LP relaxation for the problem has an integrality gap of $\Omega(\ell)$. In order to obtain our result, we introduce a strengthened LP relaxation and show that it has an integrality gap of $\Theta((\log \ell) / (\log \log \ell))$ for a fixed p. Additionally, we present a bicriteria approximation algorithm, which generalizes the bicriteria approximation of Abbasi et al. (2021).
  6. In the Correlation Clustering problem, we are given a weighted graph $G$ with its edges labelled as "similar" or "dissimilar" by a binary classifier. The goal is to produce a clustering that minimizes the weight of "disagreements": the sum of the weights of "similar" edges across clusters and "dissimilar" edges within clusters. We study the correlation clustering problem under the following assumption: Every "similar" edge $e$ has weight $w_e \in [ \alpha w, w ]$ and every "dissimilar" edge $e$ has weight $w_e \geq \alpha w$ (where $\alpha \leq 1$ and $w > 0$ is a scaling parameter). We give a $(3 + 2 \log_e (1/\alpha))$ approximation algorithm for this problem. This assumption captures well the scenario when classification errors are asymmetric. Additionally, we show an asymptotically matching Linear Programming integrality gap of $\Omega(\log 1/\alpha)$
  7. In this paper, we introduce the notion of a certified algorithm. Certified algorithms provide worst-case and beyond-worst-case performance guarantees. First, a γ-certified algorithm is also a γ-approximation algorithm - it finds a γ-approximation no matter what the input is. Second, it exactly solves γ-perturbation-resilient instances (γ-perturbation-resilient instances model real-life instances). Additionally, certified algorithms have a number of other desirable properties: they solve both maximization and minimization versions of a problem (e.g. Max Cut and Min Uncut), solve weakly perturbation-resilient instances, and solve optimization problems with hard constraints. In the paper, we define certified algorithms, describe their properties, present a framework for designing certified algorithms, provide examples of certified algorithms for Max Cut/Min Uncut, Minimum Multiway Cut, k-medians and k-means. We also present some negative results.
  8. Consider an instance of Euclidean k-means or k-medians clustering. We show that the cost of the optimal solution is preserved up to a factor of (1+ε) under a projection onto a random O(log(k /ε) / ε2)-dimensional subspace. Further, the cost of every clustering is preserved within (1+ε). More generally, our result applies to any dimension reduction map satisfying a mild sub-Gaussian-tail condition. Our bound on the dimension is nearly optimal. Additionally, our result applies to Euclidean k-clustering with the distances raised to the p-th power for any constant p. For k-means, our result resolves an open problem posed by Cohen, Elder, Musco, Musco, and Persu (STOC 2015); for k-medians, it answers a question raised by Kannan.
  9. We introduce and study the notion of *an outer bi-Lipschitz extension* of a map between Euclidean spaces. The notion is a natural analogue of the notion of *a Lipschitz extension* of a Lipschitz map. We show that for every map f there exists an outer bi-Lipschitz extension f′ whose distortion is greater than that of f by at most a constant factor. This result can be seen as a counterpart of the classic Kirszbraun theorem for outer bi-Lipschitz extensions. We also study outer bi-Lipschitz extensions of near-isometric maps and show upper and lower bounds for them. Then, we present applications of our results to prioritized and terminal dimension reduction problems, described next. We prove a *prioritized* variant of the Johnson–Lindenstrauss lemma: given a set of points X⊂ ℝd of size N and a permutation (”priority ranking”) of X, there exists an embedding f of X into ℝO(logN) with distortion O(loglogN) such that the point of rank j has only O(log3 + ε j) non-zero coordinates – more specifically, all but the first O(log3+ε j) coordinates are equal to 0; the distortion of f restricted to the first j points (according to the ranking) is at most O(loglogj). The result makesmore »a progress towards answering an open question by Elkin, Filtser, and Neiman about prioritized dimension reductions. We prove that given a set X of N points in ℜd, there exists a *terminal* dimension reduction embedding of ℝd into ℝd′, where d′ = O(logN/ε4), which preserves distances ||x−y|| between points x∈ X and y ∈ ℝd, up to a multiplicative factor of 1 ± ε. This improves a recent result by Elkin, Filtser, and Neiman. The dimension reductions that we obtain are nonlinear, and this nonlinearity is necessary.« less