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  1. Neural methods are state-of-the-art for urban prediction problems such as transportation resource demand, accident risk, crowd mobility, and public safety. Model performance can be improved by integrating exogenous features from open data repositories (e.g., weather, housing prices, traffic, etc.), but these uncurated sources are often too noisy, incomplete, and biased to use directly. We propose to learn integrated representations, called EquiTensors, from heterogeneous datasets that can be reused across a variety of tasks. We align datasets to a consistent spatio-temporal domain, then describe an unsupervised model based on convolutional denoising autoencoders to learn shared representations. We extend this core integrativemore »model with adaptive weighting to prevent certain datasets from dominating the signal. To combat discriminatory bias, we use adversarial learning to remove correlations with a sensitive attribute (e.g., race or income). Experiments with 23 input datasets and 4 real applications show that EquiTensors could help mitigate the effects of the sensitive information embodied in the biased data. Meanwhile, applications using EquiTensors outperform models that ignore exogenous features and are competitive with "oracle" models that use hand-selected datasets.« less
  2. We propose JECL, a method for clustering image-caption pairs by training parallel encoders with regularized clustering and alignment objectives, simultaneously learning both representations and cluster assignments. These image-caption pairs arise frequently in high-value applications where structured training data is expensive to produce, but free-text descriptions are common. JECL trains by minimizing the Kullback-Leibler divergence between the distribution of the images and text to that of a combined joint target distribution and optimizing the Jensen-Shannon divergence between the soft cluster assignments of the images and text. Regularizers are also applied to JECL to prevent trivial solutions. Experiments show that JECL outperformsmore »both single-view and multi-view methods on large benchmark image-caption datasets, and is remarkably robust to missing captions and varying data sizes.« less
  3. Emerging transportation modes, including car-sharing, bike-sharing, and ride-hailing, are transforming urban mobility yet have been shown to reinforce socioeconomic inequity. These services rely on accurate demand prediction, but the demand data on which these models are trained reflect biases around demographics, socioeconomic conditions, and entrenched geographic patterns. To address these biases and improve fairness, we present FairST, a fairness-aware demand prediction model for spatiotemporal urban applications, with emphasis on new mobility. We use 1D (time-varying, space-constant), 2D (space-varying, time-constant) and 3D (both time- and space-varying) convolutional branches to integrate heterogeneous features, while including fairness metrics as a form of regularizationmore »to improve equity across demographic groups. We propose two spatiotemporal fairness metrics, region-based fairness gap (RFG), applicable when demographic information is provided as a constant for a region, and individual-based fairness gap (IFG), applicable when a continuous distribution of demographic information is available. Experimental results on bike share and ride share datasets show that FairST can reduce inequity in demand prediction for multiple sensitive attributes (i.e. race, age, and education level), while achieving better accuracy than even state-of-the-art fairness-oblivious methods.« less
  4. This paper reviews the methods and findings of mobility equity studies, with a focus on new mobility.
  5. We present a fairness-aware model for predicting demand for new mobility systems. Our approach, called FairST, consists of 1D, 2D and 3D convolutions to learn the spatial-temporal dynamics of a mobility system, and fairness regularizers that guide the model to make equitable predictions. We propose two fairness metrics, region-based fairness gap (RFG) and individual-based fairness gap (IFG), that measure equity gaps between social groups for new mobility systems. Experimental results on two real-world datasets demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed model: FairST not only reduces the fairness gap by more than 80%, but achieves better accuracy than state-of-the-art but fairness-obliviousmore »methods including LSTMs, ConvLSTMs, and 3D CNN.« less
  6. Publishers are increasingly using graphical abstracts to facilitate scientific search, especially across disciplinary boundaries. They are presented on various media, easily shared and information rich. However, very small amount of scientific publications are equipped with graphical abstracts. What can we do with the vast majority of papers with no selected graphical abstract? In this paper, we first hypothesize that scientific papers actually include a "central figure" that serve as a graphical abstract. These figures convey the key results and provide a visual identity for the paper. Using survey data collected from 6,263 authors regarding 8,353 papers over 15 years, wemore »find that over 87% of papers are considered to contain a central figure, and that these central figures are primarily used to summarize important results, explain the key methods, or provide additional discussion. We then train a model to automatically recognize the central figure, achieving top-3 accuracy of 78% and exact match accuracy of 34%. We find that the primary boost in accuracy comes from figure captions that resemble the abstract. We make all our data and results publicly available at https://github.com/viziometrics/centraul_figure. Our goal is to automate central figure identification to improve search engine performance and to help scientists connect ideas across the literature.« less
  7. There exists a gap between visualization design guidelines and their application in visualization tools. While empirical studies can provide design guidance, we lack a formal framework for representing design knowledge, integrating results across studies, and applying this knowledge in automated design tools that promote effective encodings and facilitate visual exploration. We propose modeling visualization design knowledge as a collection of constraints, in conjunction with a method to learn weights for soft constraints from experimental data. Using constraints, we can take theoretical design knowledge and express it in a concrete, extensible, and testable form: the resulting models can recommend visualization designsmore »and can easily be augmented with additional constraints or updated weights. We implement our approach in Draco, a constraint-based system based on Answer Set Programming (ASP). We demonstrate how to construct increasingly sophisticated automated visualization design systems, including systems based on weights learned directly from the results of graphical perception experiments.« less
  8. We contribute user-centered prefetching and indexing methods that provide low-latency interactions across linked visualizations, enabling cold-start exploration of billion-record datasets. We implement our methods in Falcon, a web-based system that makes principled trade-offs between latency and resolution to optimize brushing and view switching times. To optimize latency-sensitive brushing actions, Falcon reindexes data upon changes to the active view a user is brushing in. To limit view switching times, Falcon initially loads reduced interactive resolutions, then progressively improves them. Benchmarks show that Falcon sustains real-time interactivity of 50fps for pixel-level brushing and linking across multiple visualizations with no costly precomputation. Wemore »show constant brushing performance regardless of data size on datasets ranging from millions of records in the browser to billions when connected to a backing database system.« less
  9. Fairness is increasingly recognized as a critical component of machine learning systems. However, it is the underlying data on which these systems are trained that often reflect discrimination, suggesting a database repair problem. Existing treatments of fairness rely on statistical correlations that can be fooled by statistical anomalies, such as Simpson's paradox. Proposals for causality-based definitions of fairness can correctly model some of these situations, but they require specification of the underlying causal models. In this paper, we formalize the situation as a database repair problem, proving sufficient conditions for fair classifiers in terms of admissible variables as opposed tomore »a complete causal model. We show that these conditions correctly capture subtle fairness violations. We then use these conditions as the basis for database repair algorithms that provide provable fairness guarantees about classifiers trained on their training labels. We evaluate our algorithms on real data, demonstrating improvement over the state of the art on multiple fairness metrics proposed in the literature while retaining high utility.« less
  10. Data too sensitive to be "open" for analysis and re-purposing typically remains "closed" as proprietary information. This dichotomy undermines efforts to make algorithmic systems more fair, transparent, and accountable. Access to proprietary data in particular is needed by government agencies to enforce policy, researchers to evaluate methods, and the public to hold agencies accountable; all of these needs must be met while preserving individual privacy and firm competitiveness. In this paper, we describe an integrated legal-technical approach provided by a third-party public-private data trust designed to balance these competing interests. Basic membership allows firms and agencies to enable low-risk accessmore »to data for compliance reporting and core methods research, while modular data sharing agreements support a wide array of projects and use cases. Unless specifically stated otherwise in an agreement, all data access is initially provided to end users through customized synthetic datasets that offer a) strong privacy guarantees, b) removal of signals that could expose competitive advantage, and c) removal of biases that could reinforce discriminatory policies, all while maintaining fidelity to the original data. We find that using synthetic data in conjunction with strong legal protections over raw data strikes a balance between transparency, proprietorship, privacy, and research objectives. This legal-technical framework can form the basis for data trusts in a variety of contexts.« less