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  1. Abstract

    Breast carcinoma is the most common cancer among women worldwide that consists of a heterogeneous group of subtype diseases. The whole-slide images (WSIs) can capture the cell-level heterogeneity, and are routinely used for cancer diagnosis by pathologists. However, key driver genetic mutations related to targeted therapies are identified by genomic analysis like high-throughput molecular profiling. In this study, we develop a deep-learning model to predict the genetic mutations and biological pathway activities directly from WSIs. Our study offers unique insights into WSI visual interactions between mutation and its related pathway, enabling a head-to-head comparison to reinforce our major findings.more »Using the histopathology images from the Genomic Data Commons Database, our model can predict the point mutations of six important genes (AUC 0.68–0.85) and copy number alteration of another six genes (AUC 0.69–0.79). Additionally, the trained models can predict the activities of three out of ten canonical pathways (AUC 0.65–0.79). Next, we visualized the weight maps of tumor tiles in WSI to understand the decision-making process of deep-learning models via a self-attention mechanism. We further validated our models on liver and lung cancers that are related to metastatic breast cancer. Our results provide insights into the association between pathological image features, molecular outcomes, and targeted therapies for breast cancer patients.

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  2. Abstract Signage systems are critical for communicating spatial information during wayfinding among a plethora of noise in the environment. A proper signage system can improve wayfinding performance and user experience by reducing the perceived complexity of the environment. However, previous models of sign-based wayfinding do not incorporate realistic noise or quantify the reduction in perceived complexity from the use of signage. Drawing upon concepts from information theory, we propose and validate a new agent-signage interaction model that quantifies available wayfinding information from signs for wayfinding. We conducted two online crowd-sourcing experiments to compute the distribution of a sign’s visibility andmore »an agent’s decision-making confidence as a function of observation angle and viewing distance. We then validated this model using a virtual reality (VR) experiment with trajectories from human participants. The crowd-sourcing experiments provided a distribution of decision-making entropy (conditioned on visibility) that can be applied to any sign/environment. From the VR experiment, a training dataset of 30 trajectories was used to refine our model, and the remaining test dataset of 10 trajectories was compared with agent behavior using dynamic time warping (DTW) distance. The results revealed a reduction of 38.76% in DTW distance between the average trajectories before and after refinement. Our refined agent-signage interaction model provides realistic predictions of human wayfinding behavior using signs. These findings represent a first step towards modeling human wayfinding behavior in complex real environments in a manner that can incorporate several additional random variables (e.g., environment layout).« less
  3. Multiscale modeling has yielded immense success on various machine learning tasks. However, it has not been properly explored for the prominent task of information diffusion, which aims to understand how information propagates along users in online social networks. For a specific user, whether and when to adopt a piece of information propagated from another user is affected by complex interactions, and thus, is very challenging to model. Current state-of-the-art techniques invoke deep neural models with vector representations of users. In this paper, we present a Hierarchical Information Diffusion (HID) framework by integrating user representation learning and multiscale modeling. The proposedmore »framework can be layered on top of all information diffusion techniques that leverage user representations, so as to boost the predictive power and learning efficiency of the original technique. Extensive experiments on three real-world datasets showcase the superiority of our method.

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