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  1. Given a Boolean formula ϕ(x) in conjunctive normal form (CNF), the density of states counts the number of variable assignments that violate exactly e clauses, for all values of e. Thus, the density of states is a histogram of the number of unsatisfied clauses over all possible assignments. This computation generalizes both maximum-satisfiability (MAX-SAT) and model counting problems and not only provides insight into the entire solution space, but also yields a measure for the hardness of the problem instance. Consequently, in real-world scenarios, this problem is typically infeasible even when using state-of-the-art algorithms. While finding an exact answer to this problem is a computationally intensive task, we propose a novel approach for estimating density of states based on the concentration of measure inequalities. The methodology results in a quadratic unconstrained binary optimization (QUBO), which is particularly amenable to quantum annealing-based solutions. We present the overall approach and compare results from the D-Wave quantum annealer against the best-known classical algorithms such as the Hamze-de Freitas-Selby (HFS) algorithm and satisfiability modulo theory (SMT) solvers.
  2. We present TrojDRL, a tool for exploring and evaluating backdoor attacks on deep reinforcement learning agents.TrojDRL exploits the sequential nature of deep reinforcement learning (DRL) and considers different gradations of threat models. We show that untargeted attacks on state-of-the-art actor-critic algorithms can circumvent existing defenses built on the assumption of backdoors being targeted. We evaluated TrojDRL on a broad set of DRL benchmarks and showed that the attacks require only poisoning as little as 0.025% of the training data. Compared with existing works of backdoor attacks on classification models, TrojDRL provides a first step towards understanding the vulnerability of DRL agents.
  3. ML algorithms or models, especially deep neural networks (DNNs), have shown significant promise in several areas. However, recently researchers have demonstrated that ML algorithms, especially DNNs, are vulnerable to adversarial examples (slightly perturbed samples that cause mis-classification). Existence of adversarial examples has hindered deployment of ML algorithms in safety-critical sectors, such as security. Several defenses for adversarial examples exist in the literature. One of the important classes of defenses are manifold-based defenses, where a sample is “pulled back” into the data manifold before classifying. These defenses rely on the manifold assumption (data lie in a manifold of lower dimension than the input space). These defenses use a generative model to approximate the input distribution. This paper asks the following question: do the generative models used in manifold-based defenses need to be topology-aware? Our paper suggests the answer is yes. We provide theoretical and empirical evidence to support our claim.
  4. In this tutorial, we present our recent work on building trusted, resilient and interpretable AI models by combining symbolic methods developed for automated reasoning with connectionist learning methods that use deep neural networks. The increasing adoption of artificial intelligence and machine learning in systems, including safety-critical systems, has created a pressing need for developing scalable techniques that can be used to establish trust over their safe behavior, resilience to adversarial attacks, and interpretability to enable human audits. This tutorial is comprised of three components: review of techniques for verification of neural networks, methods for using geometric invariants to defend against adversarial attacks, and techniques for extracting logical symbolic rules by reverse engineering machine learning models. These techniques form the core of TRINITY: Trusted, Resilient and Interpretable AI framework being developed at SRI. In this tutorial, we identify the key challenges in building the TRINITY framework, and report recent results on each of these three fronts.
  5. A classic reachability problem for safety of dynamic systems is to compute the set of initial states from which the state trajectory is guaranteed to stay inside a given constraint set over a given time horizon. In this paper, we leverage existing theory of reachability analysis and risk measures to devise a risk-sensitive reachability approach for safety of stochastic dynamic systems under non-adversarial disturbances over a finite time horizon. Specifically, we first introduce the notion of a risk-sensitive safe set as a set of initial states from which the risk of large constraint violations can be reduced to a required level via a control policy, where risk is quantified using the Conditional Value-at-Risk (CVaR) measure. Second, we show how the computation of a risk-sensitive safe set can be reduced to the solution to a Markov Decision Process (MDP), where cost is assessed according to CVaR. Third, leveraging this reduction, we devise a tractable algorithm to approximate a risk-sensitive safe set, and provide theoretical arguments about its correctness. Finally, we present a realistic example inspired from stormwater catchment design to demonstrate the utility of risk-sensitive reachability analysis. In particular, our approach allows a practitioner to tune the level of risk sensitivitymore »from worst-case (which is typical for Hamilton-Jacobi reachability analysis) to risk-neutral (which is the case for stochastic reachability analysis).« less
  6. We propose a novel passive learning approach, TeLex, to infer signal temporal logic (STL) formulas that characterize the behavior of a dynamical system using only observed signal traces of the system. First, we present a template-driven learning approach that requires two inputs: a set of observed traces and a template STL formula. The unknown parameters in the template can include time-bounds of the temporal operators, as well as the thresholds in the inequality predicates. TeLEx finds the value of the unknown parameters such that the synthesized STL property is satisfied by all the provided traces and it is tight. This requirement of tightness is essential to generating interesting properties when only positive examples are provided and there is no option to actively query the dynamical system to discover the boundaries of legal behavior. We propose a novel quantitative semantics for satisfaction of STL properties which enables TeLEx to learn tight STL properties without multidimensional optimization. The proposed new metric is also smooth. This is critical to enable the use of gradient-based numerical optimization engines and it produces a 30x to 100x speed-up with respect to the state-of-art gradient-free optimization. Second, we present a novel technique for automatically learning the structuremore »of the STL formula by incrementally constructing more complex formula guided by the robustness metric of subformula. We demonstrate the effectiveness of the overall approach for learning STL formulas from only positive examples on a set of synthetic and real-world benchmarks.« less
  7. We present an approach for the synthesis and verification of neural network controllers for closed loop dynamical systems, modelled as an ordinary differential equation. Feedforward neural networks are ubiquitous when it comes to approximating functions, especially in the machine learning literature. The proposed verification technique tries to construct an over-approximation of the system trajectories using a combination of tools, such as, Sherlock and Flow*. In addition to computing reach sets, we incorporate counter examples or bad traces into the synthesis phase of the controller as well. We go back and forth between verification and counter example generation until the system outputs a fully verified controller, or the training fails to terminate in a neural network which is compliant with the desired specifications. We demonstrate the effectiveness of our approach over a suite of benchmarks ranging from 2 to 17 variables.
  8. Shared intentionality is a critical component in developing conscious AI agents capable of collaboration, self-reflection, deliberation, and reasoning. We formulate inference of shared intentionality as an inverse reinforcement learning problem with logical reward specifications. We show how the approach can infer task descriptions from demonstrations. We also extend our approach to actively convey intentionality. We demonstrate the approach on a simple grid-world example.
  9. Real world applications often naturally decompose into several sub-tasks. In many settings (e.g., robotics) demonstrations provide a natural way to specify the sub-tasks. However, most methods for learning from demonstrations either do not provide guarantees that the artifacts learned for the sub-tasks can be safely recombined or limit the types of composition available. Motivated by this deficit, we consider the problem of inferring Boolean non-Markovian rewards (also known as logical trace properties or specifications) from demonstrations provided by an agent operating in an uncertain, stochastic environment. Crucially, specifications admit well-defined composition rules that are typically easy to interpret. In this paper, we formulate the specification inference task as a maximum a posteriori (MAP) probability inference problem, apply the principle of maximum entropy to derive an analytic demonstration likelihood model and give an efficient approach to search for the most likely specification in a large candidate pool of specifications. In our experiments, we demonstrate how learning specifications can help avoid common problems that often arise due to ad-hoc reward composition.
  10. In this paper, we consider the problem of learning Boolean formulae from examples obtained by actively querying an oracle that can label these examples as either positive or negative. This problem has received attention in both machine learning as well as formal methods communities, and it has been shown to have exponential worst-case complexity in the general case as well as for many restrictions. In this paper, we focus on learning sparse Boolean formulae which depend on only a small (but unknown) subset of the overall vocabulary of atomic propositions. We propose two algorithms—first, based on binary search in the Hamming space, and the second, based on random walk on the Boolean hypercube, to learn these sparse Boolean formulae with a given confidence. This assumption of sparsity is motivated by the problem of mining explanations for decisions made by artificially intelligent (AI) algorithms, where the explanation of individual decisions may depend on a small but unknown subset of all the inputs to the algorithm. We demonstrate the use of these algorithms in automatically generating explanations of these decisions. These explanations will make intelligent systems more understandable and accountable to human users, facilitate easier audits and provide diagnostic information in themore »case of failure. The proposed approach treats the AI algorithm as a black-box oracle; hence, it is broadly applicable and agnostic to the specific AI algorithm. We show that the number of examples needed for both proposed algorithms only grows logarithmically with the size of the vocabulary of atomic propositions. We illustrate the practical effectiveness of our approach on a diverse set of case studies.« less