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  1. Coverage-based fault localization has been extensively studied in the literature due to its effectiveness and lightweightness for real-world systems. However, existing techniques often utilize coverage in an oversimplified way by abstracting detailed coverage into numbers of tests or boolean vectors, thus limiting their effectiveness in practice. In this work, we present a novel coverage-based fault localization technique, Grace, which fully utilizes detailed coverage information with graph-based representation learning. Our intuition is that coverage can be regarded as connective relationships between tests and program entities, which can be inherently and integrally represented by a graph structure: with tests and program entities as nodes, while with coverage and code structures as edges. Therefore, we first propose a novel graph-based representation to reserve all detailed coverage information and fine-grained code structures into one graph. Then we leverage Gated Graph Neural Network to learn valuable features from the graph-based coverage representation and rank program entities in a listwise way. Our evaluation on the widely used benchmark Defects4J (V1.2.0) shows that Grace significantly outperforms state-of-the-art coverage-based fault localization: Grace localizes 195 bugs within Top-1 whereas the best compared technique can at most localize 166 bugs within Top-1. We further investigate the impact of each Grace component and find that they all positively contribute to Grace. In addition, our results also demonstrate that Grace has learnt essential features from coverage, which are complementary to various information used in existing learning-based fault localization. Finally, we evaluate Grace in the cross-project prediction scenario on extra 226 bugs from Defects4J (V2.0.0), and find that Grace consistently outperforms state-of-the-art coverage-based techniques. 
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  2. Configuration changes are among the dominant causes of failures of large-scale software system deployment. Given the velocity of configuration changes, typically at the scale of hundreds to thousands of times daily in modern cloud systems, checking these configuration changes is critical to prevent failures due to misconfigurations. Recent work has proposed configuration testing, Ctest, a technique that tests configuration changes together with the code that uses the changed configurations. Ctest can automatically generate a large number of ctests that can effectively detect misconfigurations, including those that are hard to detect by traditional techniques. However, running ctests can take a long time to detect misconfigurations. Inspired by traditional test-case prioritization (TCP) that aims to reorder test executions to speed up detection of regression code faults, we propose to apply TCP to reorder ctests to speed up detection of misconfigurations. We extensively evaluate a total of 84 traditional and novel ctest-specific TCP techniques. The experimental results on five widely used cloud projects demonstrate that TCP can substantially speed up misconfiguration detection. Our study provides guidelines for applying TCP to configuration testing in practice. 
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  3. Defect prediction aims to automatically identify potential defective code with minimal human intervention and has been widely studied in the literature. Just-in-Time (JIT) defect prediction focuses on program changes rather than whole programs, and has been widely adopted in continuous testing. CC2Vec, state-of-the-art JIT defect prediction tool, first constructs a hierarchical attention network (HAN) to learn distributed vector representations of both code additions and deletions, and then concatenates them with two other embedding vectors representing commit messages and overall code changes extracted by the existing DeepJIT approach to train a model for predicting whether a given commit is defective. Although CC2Vec has been shown to be the state of the art for JIT defect prediction, it was only evaluated on a limited dataset and not compared with all representative baselines. Therefore, to further investigate the efficacy and limitations of CC2Vec, this paper performs an extensive study of CC2Vec on a large-scale dataset with over 310,370 changes (8.3 X larger than the original CC2Vec dataset). More specifically, we also empirically compare CC2Vec against DeepJIT and representative traditional JIT defect prediction techniques. The experimental results show that CC2Vec cannot consistently outperform DeepJIT, and neither of them can consistently outperform traditional JIT defect prediction. We also investigate the impact of individual traditional defect prediction features and find that the added-line-number feature outperforms other traditional features. Inspired by this finding, we construct a simplistic JIT defect prediction approach which simply adopts the added-line- number feature with the logistic regression classifier. Surprisingly, such a simplistic approach can outperform CC2Vec and DeepJIT in defect prediction, and can be 81k X/120k X faster in training/testing. Furthermore, the paper also provides various practical guidelines for advancing JIT defect prediction in the near future. 
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  4. null (Ed.)
    Generate-and-validate (G&V) automated program repair (APR) techniques have been extensively studied during the past decade. Meanwhile, such techniques can be extremely time-consuming due to the manipulation of program code to fabricate a large number of patches and also the repeated test executions on patches to identify potential fixes. PraPR, a recent G&V APR technique, reduces such costs by modifying program code directly at the level of compiled JVM bytecode with on-the-fly patch validation, which directly allows multiple bytecode patches to be tested within the same JVM process. However, PraPR is limited due to its unique bytecode-repair design, and is basically unsound/imprecise as it assumes that patch executions do not change global JVM state and affect later patch executions on the same JVM process. In this paper, we propose a unified patch validation framework, named UniAPR, to perform the first empirical study of on-the-fly patch validation for state-of-the-art source-code-level APR techniques widely studied in the literature; furthermore, UniAPR addresses the imprecise patch validation issue by resetting the JVM global state via runtime bytecode transformation. We have implemented UniAPR as a publicly available fully automated Maven Plugin. Our study demonstrates for the first time that on-the-fly patch validation can often speed up state-of-the-art source-code-level APR by over an order of magnitude, enabling all existing APR techniques to explore a larger search space to fix more bugs in the near future. Furthermore, our study shows the first empirical evidence that vanilla on-the-fly patch validation can be imprecise/unsound, while UniAPR with JVM reset is able to mitigate such issues with negligible overhead. 
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  5. null (Ed.)
    API misuses are prevalent and extremely harmful. Despite various techniques have been proposed for API-misuse detection, it is not even clear how different types of API misuses distribute and whether existing techniques have covered all major types of API misuses. Therefore, in this paper, we conduct the first large-scale empirical study on API misuses based on 528,546 historical bug-fixing commits from GitHub (from 2011 to 2018). By leveraging a state-of-the-art fine-grained AST differencing tool, GumTree, we extract more than one million bug-fixing edit operations, 51.7% of which are API misuses. We further systematically classify API misuses into nine different categories according to the edit operations and context. We also extract various frequent API-misuse patterns based on the categories and corresponding operations, which can be complementary to existing API-misuse detection tools. Our study reveals various practical guidelines regarding the importance of different types of API misuses. Furthermore, based on our dataset, we perform a user study to manually analyze the usage constraints of 10 patterns to explore whether the mined patterns can guide the design of future API-misuse detection tools. Specifically, we find that 7,541 potential misuses still exist in latest Apache projects and 149 of them have been reported to developers. To date, 57 have already been confirmed and fixed (with 15 rejected misuses correspondingly). The results indicate the importance of studying historical API misuses and the promising future of employing our mined patterns for detecting unknown API misuses. 
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  6. null (Ed.)
    Compiler bugs can be disastrous since they could affect all the software systems built on the buggy compilers. Meanwhile, diagnosing compiler bugs is extremely challenging since usually limited debugging information is available and a large number of compiler files can be suspicious. More specifically, when compiling a given bug-triggering test program, hundreds of compiler files are usually involved, and can all be treated as suspicious buggy files. To facilitate compiler debugging, in this paper we propose the first reinforcement compiler bug isolation approach via structural mutation, called RecBi. For a given bug-triggering test program, RecBi first augments traditional local mutation operators with structural ones to transform it into a set of passing test programs. Since not all the passing test programs can help isolate compiler bugs effectively, RecBi further leverages reinforcement learning to intelligently guide the process of passing test program generation. Then, RecBi ranks all the suspicious files by analyzing the compiler execution traces of the generated passing test programs and the given failing test program following the practice of compiler bug isolation. The experimental results on 120 real bugs from two most popular C open-source compilers, i.e., GCC and LLVM, show that RecBi is able to isolate about 23%/58%/78% bugs within Top-1/Top-5/Top-10 compiler files, and significantly outperforms the state-of-the-art compiler bug isolation approach by improving 92.86%/55.56%/25.68% isolation effectiveness in terms of Top-1/Top-5/Top-10 results. 
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  7. null (Ed.)
    Automated debugging techniques, including fault localization and program repair, have been studied for over a decade. However, the only existing connection between fault localization and program repair is that fault localization computes the potential buggy elements for program repair to patch. Recently, a pioneering work, ProFL, explored the idea of unified debugging to unify fault localization and program repair in the other direction for the first time to boost both areas. More specifically, ProFL utilizes the patch execution results from one state-of-the-art repair system, PraPR, to help improve state-of-the-art fault localization. In this way, ProFL not only improves fault localization for manual repair, but also extends the application scope of automated repair to all possible bugs (not only the small ratio of bugs that can be automatically fixed). However, ProFL only considers one APR system (i.e., PraPR), and it is not clear how other existing APR systems based on different designs contribute to unified debugging. In this work, we perform an extensive study of the unified-debugging approach on 16 state-of-the-art program repair systems for the first time. Our experimental results on the widely studied Defects4J benchmark suite reveal various practical guidelines for unified debugging, such as (1) nearly all the studied 16 repair systems can positively contribute to unified debugging despite their varying repairing capabilities, (2) repair systems targeting multi-edit patches can bring extraneous noise into unified debugging, (3) repair systems with more executed/plausible patches tend to perform better for unified debugging, and (4) unified debugging effectiveness does not rely on the availability of correct patches in automated repair. Based on our results, we further propose an advanced unified debugging technique, UniDebug++, which can localize over 20% more bugs within Top-1 positions than state-of-the-art unified debugging technique, ProFL. 
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  8. null (Ed.)
    Deep neural network (DNN) has become increasingly popular and DNN testing is very critical to guarantee the correctness of DNN, i.e., the accuracy of DNN in this work. However, DNN testing suffers from a serious efficiency problem, i.e., it is costly to label each test input to know the DNN accuracy for the testing set, since labeling each test input involves multiple persons (even with domain-specific knowledge) in a manual way and the testing set is large-scale. To relieve this problem, we propose a novel and practical approach, called PACE (which is short for P ractical AC curacy E stimation), which selects a small set of test inputs that can precisely estimate the accuracy of the whole testing set. In this way, the labeling costs can be largely reduced by just labeling this small set of selected test inputs. Besides achieving a precise accuracy estimation, to make PACE more practical it is also required that it is interpretable, deterministic, and as efficient as possible. Therefore, PACE first incorporates clustering to interpretably divide test inputs with different testing capabilities (i.e., testing different functionalities of a DNN model) into different groups. Then, PACE utilizes the MMD-critic algorithm, a state-of-the-art example-based explanation algorithm, to select prototypes (i.e., the most representative test inputs) from each group, according to the group sizes, which can reduce the impact of noise due to clustering. Meanwhile, PACE also borrows the idea of adaptive random testing to select test inputs from the minority space (i.e., the test inputs that are not clustered into any group) to achieve great diversity under the required number of test inputs. The two parallel selection processes (i.e., selection from both groups and the minority space) compose the final small set of selected test inputs. We conducted an extensive study to evaluate the performance of PACE based on a comprehensive benchmark (i.e., 24 pairs of DNN models and testing sets) by considering different types of models (i.e., classification and regression models, high-accuracy and low-accuracy models, and CNN and RNN models) and different types of test inputs (i.e., original, mutated, and automatically generated test inputs). The results demonstrate that PACE is able to precisely estimate the accuracy of the whole testing set with only 1.181%∼2.302% deviations, on average, significantly outperforming the state-of-the-art approaches. 
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  9. Test-case prioritization (TCP) aims to detect regression bugs faster via reordering the tests run. While TCP has been studied for over 20 years, it was almost always evaluated using seeded faults/mutants as opposed to using real test failures. In this work, we study the recent change-aware information retrieval (IR) technique for TCP. Prior work has shown it performing better than traditional coverage-based TCP techniques, but it was only evaluated on a small-scale dataset with a cost-unaware metric based on seeded faults/mutants. We extend the prior work by conducting a much larger and more realistic evaluation as well as proposing enhancements that substantially improve the performance. In particular, we evaluate the original technique on a large-scale, real-world software-evolution dataset with real failures using both cost-aware and cost-unaware metrics under various configurations. Also, we design and evaluate hybrid techniques combining the IR features, historical test execution time, and test failure frequencies. Our results show that the change-aware IR technique outperforms stateof-the-art coverage-based techniques in this real-world setting, and our hybrid techniques improve even further upon the original IR technique. Moreover, we show that flaky tests have a substantial impact on evaluating the change-aware TCP techniques based on real test failures. 
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  10. A large body of research efforts have been dedicated to automated software debugging, including both automated fault localization and program repair. However, existing fault localization techniques have limited effectiveness on real-world software systems while even the most advanced program repair techniques can only fix a small ratio of real-world bugs. Although fault localization and program repair are inherently connected, their only existing connection in the literature is that program repair techniques usually use off-the-shelf fault localization techniques (e.g., Ochiai) to determine the potential candidate statements/elements for patching. In this work, we propose the unified debugging approach to unify the two areas in the other direction for the first time, i.e., can program repair in turn help with fault localization? In this way, we not only open a new dimension for more powerful fault localization, but also extend the application scope of program repair to all possible bugs (not only the bugs that can be directly automatically fixed). We have designed ProFL to leverage patch-execution results (from program repair) as the feedback information for fault localization. The experimental results on the widely used Defects4J benchmark show that the basic ProFL can already at least localize 37.61% more bugs within Top-1 than state-of-the-art spectrum and mutation based fault localization. Furthermore, ProFL can boost state-of-the-art fault localization via both unsupervised and supervised learning. Meanwhile, we have demonstrated ProFL's effectiveness under different settings and through a case study within Alipay, a popular online payment system with over 1 billion global users. 
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