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  1. Abstract

    Heteroanionic oxysulfide perovskite compounds represent an emerging class of new materials allowing for a wide range of tunability in the electronic structure that could lead to a diverse spectrum of novel and improved functionalities. Unlike cation ordered double perovskites—where the origins and design rules of various experimentally observed cation orderings are well known and understood—anion ordering in heteroanionic perovskites remains a largely uncharted territory. In this contribution, we present and discuss insights that have emerged from our first-principles-based electronic structure analysis of a prototypical anion-ordered SrHf(O0.5S0.5)3oxysulfide chemistry, studied in all possible anion configurations allowed within a finite size supercell. We demonstrate that the preferred anion ordering is always an all-cisarrangement of anions around an HfO3S3octahedron. As a general finding beyond the specific chemistry, the origins of this ordering tendency are traced back to a combined stabilization effect stemming from electronic, elastic, and electrostatic contributions. These qualitative notions are also quantified using state-of-the-art machine learning models. We further study the relative stability of the identified ordering as a function of A (Ca, Sr, Ba) and B (Ti, Zr, Hf) site chemistries and probe chemistry-dependent trends in the electronic structure and functionality of the material. Most remarkably, we find that themore »identified ground-state anion ordering breaks the inversion symmetry to create a family of oxysulfide ferroelectrics with a macroscopic polarization >30 μC/cm2, exhibiting a significant promise for electronic materials applications.

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  2. Materials with metastable phases can exhibit vastly different properties from their thermodynamically favored counterparts. Methods to synthesize metastable phases without the need for high-temperature or high-pressure conditions would facilitate their widespread use. We report on the electrochemical growth of microcrystals of bismuth selenide, Bi2Se3, in the metastable orthorhombic phase at room temperature in aqueous solution. Rather than direct epitaxy with the growth substrate, the spontaneous formation of a seed layer containing nanocrystals of cubic BiSe enforces the metastable phase. We first used single-crystal silicon substrates with a range of resistivities and different orientations to identify the conditions needed to produce the metastable phase. When the applied potential during electrochemical growth is positive of the reduction potential of Bi3+, an initial, Bi-rich seed layer forms. Electron microscopy imaging and diffraction reveal that the seed layer consists of nanocrystals of cubic BiSe embedded within an amorphous matrix of Bi and Se. Using density functional theory calculations, we show that epitaxial matching between cubic BiSe and orthorhombic Bi2Se3 can help stabilize the metastable orthorhombic phase over the thermodynamically stable rhombohedral phase. The spontaneous formation of the seed layer enables us to grow orthorhombic Bi2Se3 on a variety of substrates including single-crystal silicon withmore »different orientations, polycrystalline fluorine-doped tin oxide, and polycrystalline gold. The ability to stabilize the metastable phase through room-temperature electrodeposition in aqueous solution without requiring a single-crystal substrate broadens the range of applications for this semiconductor in optoelectronic and electrochemical devices.« less
    Free, publicly-accessible full text available September 29, 2023
  3. Free, publicly-accessible full text available September 26, 2023
  4. An electro-optic modulator offers the function of modulating the propagation of light in a material with an electric field and enables a seamless connection between electronics-based computing and photonics-based communication. The search for materials with large electro-optic coefficients and low optical loss is critical to increase the efficiency and minimize the size of electro-optic devices. We present a semi-empirical method to compute the electro-optic coefficients of ferroelectric materials by combining first-principles density-functional theory calculations with Landau–Devonshire phenomenological modeling. We apply the method to study the electro-optic constants, also called Pockels coefficients, of three paradigmatic ferroelectric oxides: BaTiO 3 , LiNbO 3 , and LiTaO 3 . We present their temperature-, frequency-, and strain-dependent electro-optic tensors calculated using our method. The predicted electro-optic constants agree with the experimental results, where available, and provide benchmarks for experimental verification.
    Free, publicly-accessible full text available April 28, 2023
  5. Organometallic halide perovskite (MAPPbBr 3 ), Rust-based Vapor Phase Polymerization (RVPP)-PEDOT hole transporting layers and (RVPP-PEDOT)/MAPPbBr 3 dual-layer, deposited on fluorine doped tin oxide glass were studied at room temperature using steady-state absorption, time-resolved photoluminescence imaging and femtosecond time-resolved absorption spectroscopy. Application of these techniques in conjunction with diverse excitation intensities allowed determination of various optoelectronic properties of the perovskite film and the time constant of the hole extraction process. Spectral reconstruction of the bandedge absorption spectrum using Elliot's formula enabled separation of the exciton band. The binding energy of the exciton was determined to be 19 meV and the bandgap energy of the perovskite film was 2.37 eV. Subsequent time-resolved photoluminescence studies of the perovskite film performed using a very weak excitation intensity followed by a global analysis of the data revealed monomolecular recombination dynamics of charge carriers occurring with an amplitude weighted lifetime of 3.2 ns. Femtosecond time-resolved transient absorption of the film performed after excitation intensity spanning a range of over two orders of magnitude enabled determining the rate constant of bimolecular recombination and was found to be 2.6 × 10 −10 cm 3 s −1 . Application of numerous high intensity excitations enabled observation of bandmore »filling effect and application of the Burstein–Moss model allowed to determine the reduced effective mass of photoexcited electron–hole pair in MAPPbBr 3 film to be 0.19 rest mass of the electron. Finally, application of transient absorption on RVPP-PEDOT/MAPPbBr 3 enabled determination of a 0.4 ps time constant for the MAPPbBr 3 -to-PEDOT hole extraction process.« less