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  1. Abstract

    This report is on the observation and analysis of nonlinear magnetoelectric effects (NLME) for in-plane currents perpendicularly to the hexagonal axis in single crystals and liquid phase epitaxy grown thin films of barium hexaferrite. Measurements involved tuning of ferromagnetic resonance (FMR) at 56–58 GHz in the multidomain and single domain states in the ferrite by applying a current. Data on the shift in the resonance frequency with input electric power was utilized to estimate the variations in the magnetic parameter that showed a linear dependence on the input electric power. The NLME tensor coefficients were determined form the estimated changes in the magnetization and uniaxial anisotropy field. The estimated NLME coefficients for in-plane currents are shown to be much higher than for currents flowing along the hexagonal axis. Although the frequency shift of FMR was higher for the single domain resonance, the multi-domain configuration is preferable for device applications since it eliminates the need for a large bias magnetic field. Thus, multidomain resonance with current in the basal plane is favorable for use in electrically tunable miniature, ferrite microwave signal processing devices requiring low operating power.

  2. Abstract

    This report is on the observation and theory of electric fieldEinduced non-linear magnetoelectric (NLME) effects in single crystal platelets of ferrimagnetic M-type strontium aluminum hexagonal ferrite. Using microwave measurement techniques, it was found that a DC electric field along the hexagonal c-axis results in significant changes in the saturation magnetization and uniaxial magneto-crystalline anisotropy field and these changes are proportional to the square of the applied static electric field. The NLME effects were present with or without an external bias magnetic field. TheE-induced variation in magnetic order parameters is attributed to weakening of magnetic exchange and spin–orbit interactions since conduction electrons in the ferrite are effectively excluded from both interactions while being in transit from one Fe ion to another. We present a phenomenological theory which considers magneto-bielectric effects characterized by a quadratic term in electric fieldEin the free energy density. The coefficients for the NLME coupling terms have been calculated from experimental data and they do show variations with the Al substitution level and the largest rates of change of the saturation magnetization and anisotropy constant change with the applied power were observed for x = 0.4. It was also clear from the study that strength of the NLME effectmore »does not depend on the amount Al substitution, but critically depends on the electrical conductivity of the sample with the highest NLME coefficients estimated for the sample with the highest conductivity. Results of this work are of importance for a new family of electric field tunable, miniature, high frequency ferrite devices.

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  3. Abstract

    This report is on studies directed at the nature of magneto-electric (ME) coupling by ferromagnetic resonance (FMR) under an electric field in a coaxial nanofiber of nickel ferrite (NFO) and lead zirconate titanate (PZT). Fibers with ferrite cores and PZT shells were prepared by electrospinning. The core–shell structure of annealed fibers was confirmed by electron- and scanning probe microscopy. For studies on converse ME effects, i.e., the magnetic response of the fibers to an applied electric field, FMR measurements were done on a single fiber with a near-field scanning microwave microscope (NSMM) at 5–10 GHz by obtaining profiles of both amplitude and phase of the complex scattering parameterS11as a function of bias magnetic field. The strength of the voltage-ME couplingAvwas determined from the shift in the resonance fieldHrfor bias voltage ofV = 0–7 V applied to the fiber. The coefficientAvfor the NFO core/PZT shell structure was estimated to be − 1.92 kA/Vm (− 24 Oe/V). A model was developed for the converse ME effects in the fibers and the theoretical estimates are in good agreement with the data.

  4. Abstract This work focuses on the nature of magnetic anisotropy in 2.5–16 micron thick films of nickel ferrite (NFO) grown by liquid phase epitaxy (LPE). The technique, ideal for rapid growth of epitaxial oxide films, was utilized for films on (100) and (110) substrates of magnesium gallate (MGO). The motivation was to investigate the dependence of the growth induced anisotropy field on film thickness since submicron films of NFO were reported to show a very high anisotropy. The films grown at 850–875 C and subsequently annealed at 1000 C were found to be epitaxial, with the out-of-plane lattice constant showing unanticipated decrease with increasing film thickness and the estimated in-plane lattice constant increasing with the film thickness. The uniaxial anisotropy field H σ , estimated from X-ray diffraction data, ranged from 2.8–7.7 kOe with the films on (100) MGO having a higher H σ value than for the films on (110) MGO. Ferromagnetic resonance (FMR) measurements for in-plane and out-of-plane static magnetic field were utilized to determine both the magnetocrystalline the anisotropy field H 4 and the uniaxial anisotropy field H a . Values of H 4 range from −0.24 to −0.86 kOe. The uniaxial anisotropy field H a wasmore »an order of magnitude smaller than H σ and it decreased with increasing film thickness for NFO films on (100) MGO, but H a increased with film thickness for films on (110) MGO substrates. These observations indicate that the origin of the induced anisotropy could be attributed to several factors including (i) strain due to mismatch in the film-substrate lattice constants, (ii) possible variations in the bond lengths and bond angles in NFO during the growth process, and (iii) the strain arising from mismatch in the thermal expansion coefficients of the film and the substrate due to the high growth and annealing temperatures involved in the LPE technique. The LPE films of NFO on MGO substrates studied in this work are of interest for use in high frequency devices.« less
    Free, publicly-accessible full text available December 1, 2023
  5. A model for the low-frequency magnetoelectric (ME) effect that takes into consideration the bending deformation in a ferromagnetic and ferroelectric bilayer is presented. Past models, in general, ignored the influence of bending deformation. Based on the solution of the equations of the elastic theory and electrostatics, expressions for the ME voltage coefficients (MEVCs) and ME sensitivity coefficients (MESCs) in terms of the physical parameters of the materials and the geometric characteristic of the structure were obtained. Contributions from both bending and planar deformations were considered. The theory was applied to composites of PZT and Ni with negative magnetostriction, and Permendur, or Metglas, both with positive magnetostriction. Estimates of MEVCs and MESCs indicate that the contribution from bending deformation is significant but smaller than the contribution from planar deformations, leading to a reduction in the net ME coefficients in all the three bilayer systems.
  6. Nanofibers of Y- or W-type hexagonal ferrites and core–shell fibers of hexagonal ferrites and ferroelectric lead zirconate titanate (PZT) or barium titanate (BTO) were synthesized by electrospinning. The fibers were found to be free of impurity phases, and the core–shell structure was confirmed by electron and scanning probe microscopy. The values of magnetization of pure hexagonal ferrite fibers compared well with bulk ferrite values. The coaxial fibers showed good ferroelectric polarization, with a maximum value of 0.85 μC/cm2 and 2.44 μC/cm2 for fibers with BTO core–Co2W shell and PZT core–Ni2Y shell structures, respectively. The magnetization, however, was much smaller than that for bulk hexaferrites. Magneto-electric (ME) coupling strength was characterized by measuring the ME voltage coefficient (MEVC) for magnetic field-assembled films of coaxial fibers. Among the fibers with Y-type, films with Zn2Y showed a higher MEVC than films with Ni2Y, and fibers with Co2W had a higher MEVC than that of those with Zn2W. The highest MEVC of 20.3 mV/cm Oe was measured for Co2W–PZT fibers. A very large ME response was measured in all of the films, even in the absence of an external magnetic bias field. The fibers studied here have the potential for use in magnetic sensorsmore »and high-frequency device applications.« less