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  1. Free, publicly-accessible full text available June 20, 2023
  2. Data poisoning attacks, in which an adversary corrupts a training set with the goal of inducing specific desired mistakes, have raised substantial concern: even just the possibility of such an attack can make a user no longer trust the results of a learning system. In this work, we analyze when strong robustness guarantees can be achieved even in the face of such attacks. We define and show how to provide robustly-reliable predictions, in which the predicted label is guaranteed to be correct so long as the adversary has not exceeded a given corruption budget, even in the presence of instance targeted attacks, where the adversary aims to cause a failure on specific test examples. Our guarantees are substantially stronger than those in prior approaches, which were only able to provide certificates that the prediction of the learning algorithm does not change, as opposed to certifying that the prediction is correct, as we do here. Remarkably, we provide a complete characterization of learnability in this setting, in particular, nearly-tight matching upper and lower bounds on the region that can be certified, as well as efficient algorithms for computing this region given an ERM oracle. Moreover, for the case of linear separatorsmore »over logconcave distributions, we provide efficient truly polynomial time algorithms (i.e., non-oracle algorithms) for such robustly-reliable predictions. We also extend these results to the active setting where the algorithm adaptively asks for labels of specific informative examples, and the difficulty is that the adversary might even be adaptive to this interaction, as well as to the agnostic learning setting where there is no perfect classifier even over the uncorrupted data.« less
  3. Celis, L. Elisa (Ed.)
    In this work, we consider classification of agents who can both game and improve. For example, people wishing to get a loan may be able to take some actions that increase their perceived credit-worthiness and others that also increase their true credit-worthiness. A decision-maker would like to define a classification rule with few false-positives (does not give out many bad loans) while yielding many true positives (giving out many good loans), which includes encouraging agents to improve to become true positives if possible. We consider two models for this problem, a general discrete model and a linear model, and prove algorithmic, learning, and hardness results for each. For the general discrete model, we give an efficient algorithm for the problem of maximizing the number of true positives subject to no false positives, and show how to extend this to a partial-information learning setting. We also show hardness for the problem of maximizing the number of true positives subject to a nonzero bound on the number of false positives, and that this hardness holds even for a finite-point version of our linear model. We also show that maximizing the number of true positives subject to no false positive is NP-hard inmore »our full linear model. We additionally provide an algorithm that determines whether there exists a linear classifier that classifies all agents accurately and causes all improvable agents to become qualified, and give additional results for low-dimensional data.« less
  4. The classical Perceptron algorithm provides a simple and elegant procedure for learning a linear classifier. In each step, the algorithm observes the sample's position and label and updates the current predictor accordingly if it makes a mistake. However, in presence of strategic agents that desire to be classified as positive and that are able to modify their position by a limited amount, the classifier may not be able to observe the true position of agents but rather a position where the agent pretends to be. Unlike the original setting with perfect knowledge of positions, in this situation the Perceptron algorithm fails to achieve its guarantees, and we illustrate examples with the predictor oscillating between two solutions forever, making an unbounded number of mistakes even though a perfect large-margin linear classifier exists. Our main contribution is providing a modified Perceptron-style algorithm which makes a bounded number of mistakes in presence of strategic agents with both $\ell_2$ and weighted $\ell_1$ manipulation costs. In our baseline model, knowledge of the manipulation costs (i.e., the extent to which an agent may manipulate) is assumed. In our most general model, we relax this assumption and provide an algorithm which learns and refines both the classifiermore »and its cost estimates to achieve good mistake bounds even when manipulation costs are unknown.« less
  5. In recent years, federated learning has been embraced as an approach for bringing about collaboration across large populations of learning agents. However, little is known about how collaboration protocols should take agents’ incentives into account when allocating individual resources for communal learning in order to maintain such collaborations. Inspired by game theoretic notions, this paper introduces a framework for incentive-aware learning and data sharing in federated learning. Our stable and envy-free equilibria capture notions of collaboration in the presence of agents interested in meeting their learning objectives while keeping their own sample collection burden low. For example, in an envy-free equilibrium, no agent would wish to swap their sampling burden with any other agent and in a stable equilibrium, no agent would wish to unilaterally reduce their sampling burden. In addition to formalizing this framework, our contributions include characterizing the structural properties of such equilibria, proving when they exist, and showing how they can be computed. Furthermore, we compare the sample complexity of incentive-aware collaboration with that of optimal collaboration when one ignores agents’ incentives.
  6. Algorithms for noiseless collaborative PAC learning have been analyzed and optimized in recent years with respect to sample complexity. In this paper, we study collaborative PAC learning with the goal of reducing communication cost at essentially no penalty to the sample complexity. We develop communication efficient collaborative PAC learning algorithms using distributed boosting. We then consider the communication cost of collaborative learning in the presence of classification noise. As an intermediate step, we show how collaborative PAC learning algorithms can be adapted to handle classification noise. With this insight, we develop communication efficient algorithms for collaborative PAC learning robust to classification noise.
  7. Simulated annealing is an effective and general means of optimization. It is in fact inspired by metallurgy, where the temperature of a material determines its behavior in thermodynamics. Likewise, in simulated annealing, the actions that the algorithm takes depend entirely on the value of a variable which captures the notion of temperature. Typically, simulated annealing starts with a high temperature, which makes the algorithm pretty unpredictable, and gradually cools the temperature down to become more stable. A key component that plays a crucial role in the performance of simulated annealing is the criteria under which the temperature changes namely, the cooling schedule. Motivated by this, we study the following question in this work: "Given enough samples to the instances of a specific class of optimization problems, can we design optimal (or approximately optimal) cooling schedules that minimize the runtime or maximize the success rate of the algorithm on average when the underlying problem is drawn uniformly at random from the same class?" We provide positive results both in terms of sample complexity and simulation complexity. For sample complexity, we show that O (m^1/2) samples suffice to find an approximately optimal cooling schedule of length m. We complement this result bymore »giving a lower bound of Ω (m^1/3) on the sample complexity of any learning algorithm that provides an almost optimal cooling schedule. These results are general and rely on no assumption. For simulation complexity, however, we make additional assumptions to measure the success rate of an algorithm. To this end, we introduce the monotone stationary graph that models the performance of simulated annealing. Based on this model, we present polynomial time algorithms with provable guarantees for the learning problem.« less
  8. Belkin, M. ; Kpotufe, S. (Ed.)
    We study the problem of robust learning under clean-label data-poisoning attacks, where the at-tacker injects (an arbitrary set of) correctly-labeled examples to the training set to fool the algorithm into making mistakes on specific test instances at test time. The learning goal is to minimize the attackable rate (the probability mass of attackable test instances), which is more difficult than optimal PAC learning. As we show, any robust algorithm with diminishing attackable rate can achieve the optimal dependence on ε in its PAC sample complexity, i.e., O(1/ε). On the other hand, the attackable rate might be large even for some optimal PAC learners, e.g., SVM for linear classifiers. Furthermore, we show that the class of linear hypotheses is not robustly learnable when the data distribution has zero margin and is robustly learnable in the case of positive margin but requires sample complexity exponential in the dimension. For a general hypothesis class with bounded VC dimension, if the attacker is limited to add at most t >0 poison examples, the optimal robust learning sample complexity grows almost linearly with t.
  9. A backdoor data poisoning attack is an adversarial attack wherein the attacker injects several watermarked, mislabeled training examples into a training set. The watermark does not impact the test-time performance of the model on typical data; however, the model reliably errs on watermarked examples. To gain a better foundational understanding of backdoor data poisoning attacks, we present a formal theoretical framework within which one can discuss backdoor data poisoning attacks for classification problems. We then use this to analyze important statistical and computational issues surrounding these attacks. On the statistical front, we identify a parameter we call the memorization capacity that captures the intrinsic vulnerability of a learning problem to a backdoor attack. This allows us to argue about the robustness of several natural learning problems to backdoor attacks. Our results favoring the attacker involve presenting explicit constructions of backdoor attacks, and our robustness results show that some natural problem settings cannot yield successful backdoor attacks. From a computational standpoint, we show that under certain assumptions, adversarial training can detect the presence of backdoors in a training set. We then show that under similar assumptions, two closely related problems we call backdoor filtering and robust generalization are nearly equivalent. Thismore »implies that it is both asymptotically necessary and sufficient to design algorithms that can identify watermarked examples in the training set in order to obtain a learning algorithm that both generalizes well to unseen data and is robust to backdoors.« less
  10. Multiple fairness constraints have been proposed in the literature, motivated by a range of concerns about how demographic groups might be treated unfairly by machine learning classifiers. In this work we consider a different motivation; learning from biased training data. We posit several ways in which training data may be biased, including having a more noisy or negatively biased labeling process on members of a disadvantaged group, or a decreased prevalence of positive or negative examples from the disadvantaged group, or both. Given such biased training data, Empirical Risk Minimization (ERM) may produce a classifier that not only is biased but also has suboptimal accuracy on the true data distribution. We examine the ability of fairness-constrained ERM to correct this problem. In particular, we find that the Equal Opportunity fairness constraint [Hardt et al., 2016] combined with ERM will provably recover the Bayes optimal classifier under a range of bias models. We also consider other recovery methods including re-weighting the training data, Equalized Odds, and Demographic Parity, and Calibration. These theoretical results provide additional motivation for considering fairness interventions even if an actor cares primarily about accuracy.