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  1. Abstract

    The circumgalactic medium (CGM) plays a vital role in the formation and evolution of galaxies, acting as a lifeline between galaxies and the surrounding intergalactic medium. In this study, we leverage a unique sample of quasar pairs to investigate the properties of the CGM with absorption line tomography. We present a new sample of medium-resolution Keck/ESI, Magellan/MagE, and VLT/XSHOOTER spectra of 29 quasar pairs at redshift 2 <z< 3. We supplement the sample with additional spectra of 32 pairs from the literature, creating a catalog of 61 quasar pairs with angular separations between 1.″7 and 132.″9 and projected physical separations (r) between 14 kpc and 887 kpc. We construct a catalog of 906 metal-line absorption doublets of Civ(λλ1548, 1550) with equivalent widths ranging from 6 m Å ≤Wr,1550≤ 2053 m Å. The best-fit linear model to the log-space equivalent width frequency distribution (logf(Wr)=mlog(Wr)+b) of the sample yields coefficients ofm= −1.44 ± 0.16 andb= −0.43 ± 0.16. To constrain the projected extent of Civ, we calculate the transverse autocorrelation function. The flattening of the autocorrelation function at lowrprovides a lower limit for the coherence length of the metal enriched CGM—on the order ofmore »200h−1comoving kpc. This physical size constraint allows us to refine our understanding of the metals in the CGM, where the extent of Civin the CGM depends on gas flows, feedback, timescale of metal injection and mixing, and the mass of the host galaxies.

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  2. Abstract The high incidence rate of the O vi λλ 1032, 1038 absorption around low-redshift, ∼ L * star-forming galaxies has generated interest in studies of the circumgalactic medium. We use the high-resolution EAGLE cosmological simulation to analyze the circumgalactic O vi gas around z ≈ 0.3 star-forming galaxies. Motivated by the limitation that observations do not reveal where the gas lies along the line of sight, we compare the O vi measurements produced by gas within fixed distances around galaxies and by gas selected using line-of-sight velocity cuts commonly adopted by observers. We show that gas selected by a velocity cut of ±300 km s −1 or ±500 km s −1 produces a higher O vi column density, a flatter column density profile, and a higher covering fraction compared to gas within 1, 2, or 3 times the virial radius ( r vir ) of galaxies. The discrepancy increases with impact parameter and worsens for lower-mass galaxies. For example, compared to the gas within 2 r vir , identifying the gas using velocity cuts of 200–500 km s −1 increases the O vi column density by 0.2 dex (0.1 dex) at 1 r vir to over 0.75 dex (0.7more »dex) at ≈ 2 r vir for galaxies with stellar masses of 10 9 –10 9.5 M ⊙ (10 10 –10 10.5 M ⊙ ). We furthermore estimate that excluding O vi outside r vir decreases the circumgalactic oxygen mass measured by Tumlinson et al. (2011) by over 50%. Our results demonstrate that gas at large line-of-sight separations but selected by conventional velocity windows has significant effects on the O vi measurements and may not be observationally distinguishable from gas near the galaxies.« less
  3. Abstract We present spatially resolved Hubble Space Telescope grism spectroscopy of 15 galaxies at z ∼ 0.8 drawn from the DEEP2 survey. We analyze H α +[N ii ], [S ii ], and [S iii ] emission on kiloparsec scales to explore which mechanisms are powering emission lines at high redshifts, testing which processes may be responsible for the well-known offset of high-redshift galaxies from the z ∼ 0 locus in the [O iii ]/H β versus [N ii ]/H α Baldwin—Phillips—Terlevich (BPT) excitation diagram. We study spatially resolved emission-line maps to examine evidence for active galactic nuclei (AGN), shocks, diffuse ionized gas (DIG), or escaping ionizing radiation, all of which may contribute to the BPT offsets observed in our sample. We do not find significant evidence of AGN in our sample and quantify that, on average, AGN would need to contribute ∼25% of the H α flux in the central resolution element in order to cause the observed BPT offsets. We find weak (2 σ ) evidence of DIG emission at low surface brightnesses, yielding an implied total DIG emission fraction of ∼20%, which is not significant enough to be the dominant emission line driver in our sample. Inmore »general we find that the observed emission is dominated by star-forming H ii regions. We discuss trends with demographic properties and the possible role of α -enhanced abundance patterns in the emission spectra of high-redshift galaxies. Our results indicate that photoionization modeling with stellar population synthesis inputs is a valid tool to explore the specific star formation properties which may cause BPT offsets, to be explored in future work.« less
  4. ABSTRACT We present the results from an analysis of deep Herschel far-infrared (far-IR) observations of the edge-on disc galaxy NGC 3079. The point spread function-cleaned Photodetector Array Camera and Spectrometer (PACS) images at 100 and 160 µm display a 25 × 25 kpc2 X-shape structure centred on the nucleus that is similar in extent and orientation to that seen in H α, X-rays, and the far-ultraviolet. One of the dusty filaments making up this structure is detected in the Spectral and Photometric Imaging Receiver 250 µm map out to ∼25 kpc from the nucleus. The match between the far-IR filaments and those detected at other wavelengths suggests that the dusty material has been lifted out of the disc by the same large-scale galactic wind that has produced the other structures in this object. A closer look at the central 10 × 10 kpc2 region provides additional support for this scenario. The dust temperatures traced by the 100–160 µm flux ratios in this region are enhanced within a biconical region centred on the active galactic nucleus, aligned along the minor axis of the galaxy, and coincident with the well-known double-lobed cm-wave radio structure and H α–X-ray nuclear superbubbles. PACS imaging spectroscopy of the inner 6 kpc region reveals broad [C ii] 158 µm emission linemore »profiles and OH 79 µm absorption features along the minor axis of the galaxy with widths well in excess of those expected from beam smearing of the disc rotational motion. This provides compelling evidence that the cool material traced by the [C ii] and OH features directly interacts with the nuclear ionized and relativistic outflows traced by the H α, X-ray, and radio emission.« less
  5. ABSTRACT We present deep far-infrared observations of the nearby edge-on galaxy NGC 891 obtained with the Herschel Space Observatory and the Spitzer Space Telescope. The maps confirm the detection of thermal emission from the inner circumgalactic medium (halo) and spatially resolve a dusty superbubble and a dust spur (filament). The dust temperature of the halo component is lower than that of the disc but increases across a region of diameter ≈8.0 kpc extending at least 7.7 kpc vertically from one side of the disc, a region we call a superbubble because of its association with thermal X-ray emission and a minimum in the synchrotron scale height. This outflow is breaking through the thick disc and developing into a galactic wind, which is of particular interest because NGC 891 is not considered a starburst galaxy; the star formation rate surface density, 0.03 M⊙ yr−1 kpc−2, and gas fraction, just $10{{\ \rm per\ cent}}$ in the inner disc, indicate the threshold for wind formation is lower than previous work has suggested. We conclude that the star formation surface density is sufficient for superbubble blowout into the halo, but the cosmic ray electrons may play a critical role in determining whether this outflow develops into a fountain or escapesmore »from the gravitational potential. The high dust-to-gas ratio in the dust spur suggests the material was pulled out of NGC 891 through the collision of a minihalo with the disc of NGC 891. We conclude that NGC 891 offers an example of both feedback and satellite interactions transporting dust into the halo of a typical galaxy.« less