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  1. Operating systems play a crucial role in computer systems, serving as the fundamental infrastructure that supports a wide range of applications and services. However, they are also prime targets for malicious actors seeking to exploit vulnerabilities and compromise system security. This is a crucial area that requires active research; however, OS vulnerabilities have not been actively studied in recent years. Therefore, we conduct a comprehensive analysis of OS vulnerabilities, aiming to enhance the understanding of their trends, severity, and common weaknesses. Our research methodology encompasses data preparation, sampling of vulnerable OS categories and versions, and an in-depth analysis of trends, severity levels, and types of OS vulnerabilities. We scrape the high-level data from reliable and recognized sources to generate two refined OS vulnerability datasets: one for OS categories and another for OS versions. Our study reveals the susceptibility of popular operating systems such as Windows, Windows Server, Debian Linux, and Mac OS. Specifically, Windows 10, Windows 11, Android (v11.0, v12.0, v13.0), Windows Server 2012, Debian Linux (v10.0, v11.0), Fedora 37, and HarmonyOS 2, are identified as the most vulnerable OS versions in recent years (2021–2022). Notably, these vulnerabilities exhibit a high severity, with maximum CVSS scores falling into the 7–8 and 9–10 range. Common vulnerability types, including CWE-119, CWE-20, CWE-200, and CWE-787, are prevalent in these OSs and require specific attention from OS vendors. The findings on trends, severity, and types of OS vulnerabilities from this research will serve as a valuable resource for vendors, security professionals, and end-users, empowering them to enhance OS security measures, prioritize vulnerability management efforts, and make informed decisions to mitigate risks associated with these vulnerabilities. 
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  2. Cyberattacks targeted to the energy cyber-physical system (ECPS), also known as the smart grid, could interrupt the electricity supply with major ramifications. Attackers identify and exploit any vulnerable portion of the energy power grid, including the inverters with solar-powered photovoltaic (PV) panels. PV presents unique challenges as electricity consumers have also become providers of solar energy for utilities. As mandates require increased PV penetration across the world for positive environmental impacts, increased cyberattacks targeted at PV systems impact reliability and efficiency within the ECPS. The new technologies continuously being introduced to manage the ECPS and ensure bi-directional communications and energy flow between components also lead to more attack surfaces, system vulnerabilities, and heightened malicious attacks. Data integrity attacks are increasing within PV systems. In this paper, we present a survey of different methods that are proposed and explored for identifying and preventing cyberattacks targeted at PV systems. The attack detection methods include voltage control, data diodes, and voltage measurement algorithms. Furthermore, we present blockchain, cyber switching, and other attack mitigation techniques for PV systems. 
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    Cyber-threats are continually evolving and growing in numbers and extreme complexities with the increasing connectivity of the Internet of Things (IoT). Existing cyber-defense tools seem not to deter the number of successful cyber-attacks reported worldwide. If defense tools are not seldom, why does the cyber-chase trend favor bad actors? Although cyber-defense tools monitor and try to diffuse intrusion attempts, research shows the required agility speed against evolving threats is way too slow. One of the reasons is that many intrusion detection tools focus on anomaly alerts’ accuracy, assuming that pre-observed attacks and subsequent security patches are adequate. Well, that is not the case. In fact, there is a need for techniques that go beyond intrusion accuracy against specific vulnerabilities to the prediction of cyber-defense performance for improved proactivity. This paper proposes a combination of cyber-attack projection and cyber-defense agility estimation to dynamically but reliably augur intrusion detection performance. Since cyber-security is buffeted with many unknown parameters and rapidly changing trends, we apply a machine learning (ML) based hidden markov model (HMM) to predict intrusion detection agility. HMM is best known for robust prediction of temporal relationships mid noise and training brevity corroborating our high prediction accuracy on three major open-source network intrusion detection systems, namely Zeek, OSSEC, and Suricata. Specifically, we present a novel approach for combined projection, prediction, and cyber-visualization to enable precise agility analysis of cyber defense. We also evaluate the performance of the developed approach using numerical results. 
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    Cities have circumvented privacy norms and deployed sensors to track vehicles via toll transponders (like E-Zpass tags). The ethical problems regarding these practices have been highlighted by various privacy advocacy groups. The industry however, has yet to implement a standard privacy protection regime to protect users’ data. Further, existing risk management models do not adequately address user-controlled data sharing requirements. In this paper, we consider the challenges of protecting private data in the Internet of Vehicles (IoV) and mobile edge networks. Specifically, we present a privacy risk reduction model for electronic toll transponder data. We seek to preserve driver privacy while contributing to intelligent transportation infrastructure congestion automation schemes. We thus propose TollsOnly, a fully homomorphic encryption protocol. TollsOnly is expected to be a post-quantum privacy preservation scheme. It enables users to share specific data with smart cities via blockchain technology. TollsOnly protects driver privacy in compliance with the European General Data Protection Regulation (GDPR) and the California Consumer Privacy Act. 
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    Edge Computing (EC) has seen a continuous rise in its popularity as it provides a solution to the latency and communication issues associated with edge devices transferring data to remote servers. EC achieves this by bringing the cloud closer to edge devices. Even though EC does an excellent job of solving the latency and communication issues, it does not solve the privacy issues associated with users transferring personal data to the nearby edge server. Federated Learning (FL) is an approach that was introduced to solve the privacy issues associated with data transfers to distant servers. FL attempts to resolve this issue by bringing the code to the data, which goes against the traditional way of sending the data to remote servers. In FL, the data stays on the source device, and a Machine Learning (ML) model used to train the local data is brought to the end device instead. End devices train the ML model using local data and then send the model updates back to the server for aggregation. However, this process of asking random devices to train a model using its local data has potential risks such as a participant poisoning the model using malicious data for training to produce bogus parameters. In this paper, an approach to mitigate data poisoning attacks in a federated learning setting is investigated. The application of the approach is highlighted, and the practical and secure nature of this approach is illustrated as well using numerical results. 
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    Data falsification attack in Vehicular Ad hoc Networks (VANET) for the Internet of Vehicles (IoV) is achieved by corrupting the data exchanged between nodes with false information. Data is the most valuable asset these days from which many analyses and results can be drawn out. But the privacy concern raised by users has become the greatest hindrance in performing data analysis. In IoV, misbehavior detection can be performed by creating a machine learning model from basic safety message (BSM) dataset of vehicles. We propose a privacy-preserving misbehavior detecting system for IoV using Federated Machine Learning. Vehicles in VANET for IoV are given the initial dull model to locally train using their own local data. On doing this we get a collective smart model that can classify Position Falsification attack in VANET using the data generated by each vehicle. All this is done without actually sharing the data with any third party to perform analysis. In this paper, we compare the performance of the attack detection model trained by using a federated and central approach. This training method trains the model on a different kind of position falsification attack by using local BSM data generated on each vehicle. 
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