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  1. Abstract One of the most common approaches for quenching single-photon avalanche diodes is to use a passive resistor in series with it. A drawback of this approach has been the limited recovery speed of the single-photon avalanche diodes. High resistance is needed to quench the avalanche, leading to slower recharging of the single-photon avalanche diodes depletion capacitor. We address this issue by replacing a fixed quenching resistor with a bias-dependent adaptive resistive switch. Reversible generation of metallic conduction enables switching between low and high resistance states under unipolar bias. As an example, using a Pt/Al 2 O 3 /Ag resistor with a commercial silicon single-photon avalanche diodes, we demonstrate avalanche pulse widths as small as ~30 ns, 10× smaller than a passively quenched approach, thus significantly improving the single-photon avalanche diodes frequency response. The experimental results are consistent with a model where the adaptive resistor dynamically changes its resistance during discharging and recharging the single-photon avalanche diodes.
    Free, publicly-accessible full text available December 1, 2023
  2. Abstract The ability to engineer the spatial wavefunction of photons has enabled a variety of quantum protocols for communication, sensing, and information processing. These protocols exploit the high dimensionality of structured light enabling the encoding of multiple bits of information in a single photon, the measurement of small physical parameters, and the achievement of unprecedented levels of security in schemes for cryptography. Unfortunately, the potential of structured light has been restrained to free-space platforms in which the spatial profile of photons is preserved. Here, we make an important step forward to using structured light for fiber optical communication. We introduce a classical encryption protocol in which the propagation of high-dimensional spatial modes in multimode fibers is used as a natural mechanism for encryption. This provides a secure communication channel for data transmission. The information encoded in spatial modes is retrieved using artificial neural networks, which are trained from the intensity distributions of experimentally detected spatial modes. Our on-fiber communication platform allows us to use single spatial modes for information encoding as well as the high-dimensional superposition modes for bit-by-bit and byte-by-byte encoding respectively. This protocol enables one to recover messages and images with almost perfect accuracy. Our classical smart protocolmore »for high-dimensional encryption in optical fibers provides a platform that can be adapted to address increased per-photon information capacity at the quantum level, while maintaining the fidelity of information transfer. This is key for quantum technologies relying on structured fields of light, particularly those that are challenged by free-space propagation.« less
    Free, publicly-accessible full text available July 19, 2023
  3. Experimental limitations such as optical loss and noise have prevented entanglement-enhanced measurements from demonstrating a significant quantum advantage in sensitivity. Holland-Burnett entangled states can mitigate these limitations and still present a quantum advantage in sensitivity. Here we model a fiber-based Mach-Zehnder interferometer with internal loss, detector efficiency, and external phase noise and without pure entanglement. This model features a practical fiber source that transforms the two-mode squeezed vacuum (TMSV) into Holland-Burnett entangled states. We predict that a phase sensitivity 28% beyond the shot noise limit is feasible with current technology. Simultaneously, a TMSV source can provide about 25 times more photon flux than other entangled sources. This system will make fiber-based quantum-enhanced sensing accessible and practical for remote sensing and probing photosensitive materials.
  4. We report a ∼3-fold enhancement of third-harmonic generation (THG) conversion efficiency using indium tin oxide (ITO) nanoparticles on the surface of an ultra-high-Qsilica microsphere. This is one of the largest microcavity-based THG enhancements reported. Phase-matching and spatial mode overlap are explored numerically to determine the microsphere radius (∼29 µm) and resonant mode numbers that maximize THG. Furthermore, the ITO nanoparticles are uniformly bonded to the cavity surface by drop-casting, eliminating the need for complex fabrication. The significant improvement in THG conversion efficiency establishes functionalized ITO microcavities as a promising tool for broadband frequency conversion, nonlinear enhancement, and applications in integrated photonics.