skip to main content


The NSF Public Access Repository (NSF-PAR) system and access will be unavailable from 11:00 PM ET on Friday, May 17 until 8:00 AM ET on Saturday, May 18 due to maintenance. We apologize for the inconvenience.

Search for: All records

Award ID contains: 1923732

Note: When clicking on a Digital Object Identifier (DOI) number, you will be taken to an external site maintained by the publisher. Some full text articles may not yet be available without a charge during the embargo (administrative interval).
What is a DOI Number?

Some links on this page may take you to non-federal websites. Their policies may differ from this site.

  1. Abstract

    This work is on the design, fabrication and characterization of a hexagonal ferrite band-pass filter that can be tuned either with a magnetic field or an electric field. The filter operation is based on a straight-edge Y-type hexagonal ferrite resonator symmetrically coupled to the input and output microstrip transmission lines. The Zn2Yfilter demonstrated magnetic field tunability in the 8–12 GHz frequency range by applying an in-plane bias magnetic fieldH0provided by a built-in permanent magnet. The insertion loss and 3 dB bandwidth within this band were 8.6 ± 0.4 dB and 350 ± 40 MHz, respectively. The electric fieldEtunability of the pass-band of the device was facilitated by the nonlinear magnetoelectric effect (NLME) in the ferrite. TheE-tuning of the center frequency of the filter by (1150 ± 90) MHz was obtained for an input DC electric power of 200 mW. With efforts directed at a significant reduction in the insertion loss, the compact and power efficient magnetic and electric field tunable Zn2Y band-pass filter has the potential for use in novel reconfigurable RF/microwave devices and communication systems.

    more » « less
  2. Abstract

    This report is on the observation and analysis of nonlinear magnetoelectric effects (NLME) for in-plane currents perpendicularly to the hexagonal axis in single crystals and liquid phase epitaxy grown thin films of barium hexaferrite. Measurements involved tuning of ferromagnetic resonance (FMR) at 56–58 GHz in the multidomain and single domain states in the ferrite by applying a current. Data on the shift in the resonance frequency with input electric power was utilized to estimate the variations in the magnetic parameter that showed a linear dependence on the input electric power. The NLME tensor coefficients were determined form the estimated changes in the magnetization and uniaxial anisotropy field. The estimated NLME coefficients for in-plane currents are shown to be much higher than for currents flowing along the hexagonal axis. Although the frequency shift of FMR was higher for the single domain resonance, the multi-domain configuration is preferable for device applications since it eliminates the need for a large bias magnetic field. Thus, multidomain resonance with current in the basal plane is favorable for use in electrically tunable miniature, ferrite microwave signal processing devices requiring low operating power.

    more » « less
  3. Abstract

    This report is on the observation and theory of electric fieldEinduced non-linear magnetoelectric (NLME) effects in single crystal platelets of ferrimagnetic M-type strontium aluminum hexagonal ferrite. Using microwave measurement techniques, it was found that a DC electric field along the hexagonal c-axis results in significant changes in the saturation magnetization and uniaxial magneto-crystalline anisotropy field and these changes are proportional to the square of the applied static electric field. The NLME effects were present with or without an external bias magnetic field. TheE-induced variation in magnetic order parameters is attributed to weakening of magnetic exchange and spin–orbit interactions since conduction electrons in the ferrite are effectively excluded from both interactions while being in transit from one Fe ion to another. We present a phenomenological theory which considers magneto-bielectric effects characterized by a quadratic term in electric fieldEin the free energy density. The coefficients for the NLME coupling terms have been calculated from experimental data and they do show variations with the Al substitution level and the largest rates of change of the saturation magnetization and anisotropy constant change with the applied power were observed for x = 0.4. It was also clear from the study that strength of the NLME effect does not depend on the amount Al substitution, but critically depends on the electrical conductivity of the sample with the highest NLME coefficients estimated for the sample with the highest conductivity. Results of this work are of importance for a new family of electric field tunable, miniature, high frequency ferrite devices.

    more » « less
  4. Abstract

    This report is on studies directed at the nature of magneto-electric (ME) coupling by ferromagnetic resonance (FMR) under an electric field in a coaxial nanofiber of nickel ferrite (NFO) and lead zirconate titanate (PZT). Fibers with ferrite cores and PZT shells were prepared by electrospinning. The core–shell structure of annealed fibers was confirmed by electron- and scanning probe microscopy. For studies on converse ME effects, i.e., the magnetic response of the fibers to an applied electric field, FMR measurements were done on a single fiber with a near-field scanning microwave microscope (NSMM) at 5–10 GHz by obtaining profiles of both amplitude and phase of the complex scattering parameterS11as a function of bias magnetic field. The strength of the voltage-ME couplingAvwas determined from the shift in the resonance fieldHrfor bias voltage ofV = 0–7 V applied to the fiber. The coefficientAvfor the NFO core/PZT shell structure was estimated to be − 1.92 kA/Vm (− 24 Oe/V). A model was developed for the converse ME effects in the fibers and the theoretical estimates are in good agreement with the data.

    more » « less
  5. In this work, we have prepared intergrowth of multiferroic compounds namely Bi4RTi3Fe0.7Co0.3O15-Bi3RTi2Fe0.7Co0.3O12−δ (BRTFCO15-BRTFCO12) (rare earth (R) = Dy, Sm, La) by solid-state reaction method. From the X-ray diffraction Rietveld refinement, the structure of the intergrowths was found to be orthorhombic in which satisfactory fittings establish the existence of three-layered (space group: b 2 c b) and four-layered compounds (space group: A21am). Analysis of magnetic measurements confirmed a larger magnetization for theSm-modified intergrowth compound (BSTFCO15-BSTFCO12) compared to Dy- and La-doped ones. The emergence of higher magnetic properties can be due to distortion in the unit cell when some Bi3+ ions are replaced with the Sm3+, bonding of Fe3+-O-Co3+ as well as a possible mixture of FexCoy-type nanoparticles that are formed generally in the synthesis of intergrowths. The changes in the magnetic state of the Aurivillius intergrowths have been reflected in the magnetoelectric (ME) coupling: higher ME coefficient (~30 mV/Cm-Oe) at lower magnetic fields and is constant up to 3 kOe. The results were corroborated by Raman spectroscopy and variation of temperature with magnetization data. The results revealed that the RE-modified intergrowth route is an effective preparative method for higher-layer Aurivillius multiferroic ceramics. 
    more » « less
  6. Abstract This work focuses on the nature of magnetic anisotropy in 2.5–16 micron thick films of nickel ferrite (NFO) grown by liquid phase epitaxy (LPE). The technique, ideal for rapid growth of epitaxial oxide films, was utilized for films on (100) and (110) substrates of magnesium gallate (MGO). The motivation was to investigate the dependence of the growth induced anisotropy field on film thickness since submicron films of NFO were reported to show a very high anisotropy. The films grown at 850–875 C and subsequently annealed at 1000 C were found to be epitaxial, with the out-of-plane lattice constant showing unanticipated decrease with increasing film thickness and the estimated in-plane lattice constant increasing with the film thickness. The uniaxial anisotropy field H σ , estimated from X-ray diffraction data, ranged from 2.8–7.7 kOe with the films on (100) MGO having a higher H σ value than for the films on (110) MGO. Ferromagnetic resonance (FMR) measurements for in-plane and out-of-plane static magnetic field were utilized to determine both the magnetocrystalline the anisotropy field H 4 and the uniaxial anisotropy field H a . Values of H 4 range from −0.24 to −0.86 kOe. The uniaxial anisotropy field H a was an order of magnitude smaller than H σ and it decreased with increasing film thickness for NFO films on (100) MGO, but H a increased with film thickness for films on (110) MGO substrates. These observations indicate that the origin of the induced anisotropy could be attributed to several factors including (i) strain due to mismatch in the film-substrate lattice constants, (ii) possible variations in the bond lengths and bond angles in NFO during the growth process, and (iii) the strain arising from mismatch in the thermal expansion coefficients of the film and the substrate due to the high growth and annealing temperatures involved in the LPE technique. The LPE films of NFO on MGO substrates studied in this work are of interest for use in high frequency devices. 
    more » « less
  7. Here, we discuss a model for the quasi-static magnetoelectric (ME) interaction in three-layer composites consisting of a single piezoelectric (PE) layer and two magnetostrictive (MS) layers with positive and negative magnetostriction. Two types of layer arrangements are considered: Type 1: a sandwich structure with the PE layer between the two MS layers and Type 2: the two MS layers form the adjacent layers. Expressions for the ME response are obtained using the system of equations of elasto- and electrostatics for the PE and MS phases. The contributions from longitudinal and bending vibrations to the net ME response are considered. The theory is applied for trilayers consisting of lead zirconate titanate (PZT), nickel for negative magnetostriction, and Metglas for positive magnetostriction. Estimates of the dependence of the strength of the ME response on the thickness of the three layers are provided. It is shown that the asymmetric three-layer structures of both types lead to an increase in the strength of ME interactions by almost an order of magnitude compared to a two-layer piezoelectric-magnetostrictive structure. The model predicts a much stronger ME response in Type 2 structures than in Type 1. The theory discussed here is of importance for designing composites for applications such as magnetic field sensors, gyrators, and energy harvesters. 
    more » « less
  8. This report is on the nature of strain in thin films of yttrium iron garnet (YIG) on yttrium aluminum garnet (YAG) substrates due to film-substrate lattice mismatch and the resulting induced magnetic anisotropy. Films with thickness 55 nm to 380 nm were deposited on (100), (110), and (111) YAG substrates using pulsed laser deposition (PLD) techniques and characterized by structural and magnetic characterization techniques. The in-plane strain determined to be compressive using X-ray diffraction (XRD). It varied from −0.12% to −0.98% and increased in magnitude with increasing film thickness and was relatively large in films on (100) YAG. The out-of-plane strain was tensile and also increased with increasing film thickness. The estimated strain-induced magnetic anisotropy field, found from XRD data, was out of plane; its value increased with film thickness and ranged from 0.47 kOe to 3.96 kOe. Ferromagnetic resonance (FMR) measurements at 5 to 21 GHz also revealed the presence of a perpendicular magnetic anisotropy that decreased with increasing film thickness and its values were smaller than values obtained from XRD data. The PLD YIG films on YAG substrates exhibiting a perpendicular anisotropy field have the potential for use in self-biased sensors and high-frequency devices. 
    more » « less