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  1. Abstract

    3D printing using conventional stereolithography is challenging because the polymerized layers adhere to the solid constraining interface. The mechanical separation forces lead to poor process reliability and limit the geometrical design space of the printed parts. Here, these challenges are overcome by utilizing a static inert immiscible liquid below the resin as the constraining interface. We elucidate the mechanisms that enable the static liquid to mitigate stiction in both discrete layer-by-layer and continuous layerless growth modes. The inert liquid functions as a dewetting interface during the discrete growth and as a carrier of oxygen to inhibit polymerization during the continuous growth. This method enables a wide range of process conditions, such as exposure and resin properties, which facilitates micrometer scale resolutions and dimensional accuracies above 95%. We demonstrate multi-scale microstructures with feature sizes ranging from 16 μm to thousands of micrometers and functional devices with aspect ratios greater than 50:1 without using sacrificial supports. This process can enable additive 3D microfabrication of functional devices for a variety of applications.

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  2. Abstract Micrometer scale arbitrary hollow geometries within a solid are needed for a variety of applications including microfluidics, thermal management and metamaterials. A major challenge to 3D printing hollow geometries using stereolithography is the ability to retain empty spaces in between the solidified regions. In order to prevent unwanted polymerization of the trapped resin in the hollow spaces—known as print-through—significant constraints are generally imposed on the primary process parameters such as resin formulation, exposure conditions and layer thickness. Here, we report on a stereolithography process which substitutes the trapped resin with a UV blocking liquid to mitigate print-through. We investigate the mechanism of the developed process and determine guidelines for the formulation of the blocking liquid. The reported method decouples the relationship between the primary process parameters and their effect on print-through. Without having to optimize the primary process parameters to reduce print-through, hollow heights that exceed the limits of conventional stereolithography can be realized. We demonstrate fabrication of a variety of complex hollow geometries with cross-sectional features ranging from tens of micrometer to hundreds of micrometers in size. With the framework presented, this method may be employed for 3D printing functional hollow geometries for a variety of applications, and with improved freedom over the printing process (e.g. material choices, speed and resulting properties of the printed parts). 
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    Free, publicly-accessible full text available December 1, 2024
  3. Free, publicly-accessible full text available November 12, 2024
  4. Free, publicly-accessible full text available July 9, 2024
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    We report the design, fabrication, and experimental characterization of a chip-sized electromechanical micro-receiver for low-frequency, near-field wireless power transmission that employs both electrodynamic and piezoelectric transductions to achieve a high power density and high output voltage while maintaining a low profile. The 0.09 cm 3 device comprises a laser-micro-machined titanium suspension, one NdFeB magnet, two PZT-5A piezo-ceramic patches, and a precision-manufactured micro-coil with a thickness of only 1.65 mm. The device generates 520 μW average power (5.5 mW•cm -3 ) at 4 cm distance from a transmitter coil operating at 734.6 Hz and within safe human exposure limits. Compared to a previously reported piezoelectric-only prototype, this device generates ~2.5x higher power and offers 18% increased normalized power density (6.5 mW•cm -3 •mT -2 ) for potential improvement in wirelessly charging wearables and bio-implants. 
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