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  1. Abstract

    Neuromorphic computing mimics the organizational principles of the brain in its quest to replicate the brain’s intellectual abilities. An impressive ability of the brain is its adaptive intelligence, which allows the brain to regulate its functions “on the fly” to cope with myriad and ever-changing situations. In particular, the brain displays three adaptive and advanced intelligence abilities of context-awareness, cross frequency coupling, and feature binding. To mimic these adaptive cognitive abilities, we design and simulate a novel, hardware-based adaptive oscillatory neuron using a lattice of magnetic skyrmions. Charge current fed to the neuron reconfigures the skyrmion lattice, thereby modulating the neuron’s state, its dynamics and its transfer function “on the fly.” This adaptive neuron is used to demonstrate the three cognitive abilities, of which context-awareness and cross-frequency coupling have not been previously realized in hardware neurons. Additionally, the neuron is used to construct an adaptive artificial neural network (ANN) and perform context-aware diagnosis of breast cancer. Simulations show that the adaptive ANN diagnoses cancer with higher accuracy while learning faster and using a more compact and energy-efficient network than a nonadaptive ANN. The work further describes how hardware-based adaptive neurons can mitigate several critical challenges facing contemporary ANNs. Modern ANNs require large amounts of training data, energy, and chip area, and are highly task-specific; conversely, hardware-based ANNs built with adaptive neurons show faster learning, compact architectures, energy-efficiency, fault-tolerance, and can lead to the realization of broader artificial intelligence.

     
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  2. Abstract

    In neuromorphic computing, artificial synapses provide a multi‐weight (MW) conductance state that is set based on inputs from neurons, analogous to the brain. Herein, artificial synapses based on magnetic materials that use a magnetic tunnel junction (MTJ) and a magnetic domain wall (DW) are explored. By fabricating lithographic notches in a DW track underneath a single MTJ, 3–5 stable resistance states that can be repeatably controlled electrically using spin‐orbit torque are achieved. The effect of geometry on the synapse behavior is explored, showing that a trapezoidal device has asymmetric weight updates with high controllability, while a rectangular device has higher stochasticity, but with stable resistance levels. The device data is input into neuromorphic computing simulators to show the usefulness of application‐specific synaptic functions. Implementing an artificial neural network (NN) applied to streamed Fashion‐MNIST data, the trapezoidal magnetic synapse can be used as a metaplastic function for efficient online learning. Implementing a convolutional NN for CIFAR‐100 image recognition, the rectangular magnetic synapse achieves near‐ideal inference accuracy, due to the stability of its resistance levels. This work shows MW magnetic synapses are a feasible technology for neuromorphic computing and provides design guidelines for emerging artificial synapse technologies.

     
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  3. Free, publicly-accessible full text available July 1, 2024
  4. Abstract Topological solitons are exciting candidates for the physical implementation of next-generation computing systems. As these solitons are nanoscale and can be controlled with minimal energy consumption, they are ideal to fulfill emerging needs for computing in the era of big data processing and storage. Magnetic domain walls (DWs) and magnetic skyrmions are two types of topological solitons that are particularly exciting for next-generation computing systems in light of their non-volatility, scalability, rich physical interactions, and ability to exhibit non-linear behaviors. Here we summarize the development of computing systems based on magnetic topological solitons, highlighting logical and neuromorphic computing with magnetic DWs and skyrmions. 
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  5. In the Beyond Moore Law era, with increasing edge intelligence, domain-specific computing embracing unconventional approaches will become increasingly prevalent. At the same time, the adoption of a wide variety of nanotechnologies will offer benefits in energy cost, computational speed, reduced footprint, cyber-resilience and processing prowess. The time is ripe to lay out a roadmap for unconventional computing with nanotechnologies to guide future research and this collection aims to fulfill that need. The authors provide a comprehensive roadmap for neuromorphic computing with electron spins, memristive devices, two-dimensional nanomaterials, nanomagnets and assorted dynamical systems. They also address other paradigms such as Ising machines, Bayesian inference engines, probabilistic computing with p-bits, processing in memory, quantum memories and algorithms, computing with skyrmions and spin waves, and brain inspired computing for incremental learning and solving problems in severely resource constrained environments. All of these approaches have advantages over conventional Boolean computing predicated on the von-Neumann architecture. With the computational need for artificial intelligence growing at a rate 50x faster than Moore law for electronics, more unconventional approaches to computing and signal processing will appear on the horizon and this roadmap will aid in identifying future needs and challenges. 
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  6. Neuromorphic computing is a promising candidate for beyond-von Neumann computer architectures, featuring low power consumption and high parallelism. Lateral inhibition and winner-take-all (WTA) features play a crucial role in neuronal competition of the nervous system as well as neuromorphic hardwares. The domain wall - magnetic tunnel junction (DWMTJ) neuron is an emerging spintronic artificial neuron device exhibiting intrinsic lateral inhibition. In this paper we show that lateral inhibition parameters modulate the neuron firing statistics in a DW-MTJ neuron array, thus emulating soft-winner-take-all (WTA) and firing group selection. 
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  7. Drouhin, Henri-Jean M. ; Wegrowe, Jean-Eric ; Razeghi, Manijeh (Ed.)
    Neuromorphic computing captures the quintessential neural behaviors of the brain and is a promising candidate for the beyond-von Neumann computer architectures, featuring low power consumption and high parallelism. The neuronal lateral inhibition feature, closely associated with the biological receptive eld, is crucial to neuronal competition in the nervous system as well as its neuromorphic hardware counterpart. The domain wall - magnetic tunnel junction (DW-MTJ) neuron is an emerging spintronic arti cial neuron device exhibiting intrinsic lateral inhibition. This work discusses lateral inhibition mechanism of the DW-MTJ neuron and shows by micromagnetic simulation that lateral inhibition is eciently enhanced by the Dzyaloshinskii-Moriya interaction (DMI). 
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