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  1. Free, publicly-accessible full text available October 1, 2023
  2. Automated event detection from news corpora is a crucial task towards mining fast-evolving structured knowledge. As real-world events have different granularities, from the top-level themes to key events and then to event mentions corresponding to concrete actions, there are generally two lines of research: (1) theme detection tries to identify from a news corpus major themes (e.g., “2019 Hong Kong Protests” versus “2020 U.S. Presidential Election”) which have very distinct semantics; and (2) action extraction aims to extract from a single document mention-level actions (e.g., “the police hit the left arm of the protester”) that are often too fine-grained for comprehending the real-world event. In this paper, we propose a new task, key event detection at the intermediate level, which aims to detect from a news corpus key events (e.g., HK Airport Protest on Aug. 12-14), each happening at a particular time/location and focusing on the same topic. This task can bridge event understanding and structuring and is inherently challenging because of (1) the thematic and temporal closeness of different key events and (2) the scarcity of labeled data due to the fast-evolving nature of news articles. To address these challenges, we develop an unsupervised key event detection framework, EvMine,more »that (1) extracts temporally frequent peak phrases using a novel ttf-itf score, (2) merges peak phrases into event-indicative feature sets by detecting communities from our designed peak phrase graph that captures document cooccurrences, semantic similarities, and temporal closeness signals, and (3) iteratively retrieves documents related to each key event by training a classifier with automatically generated pseudo labels from the event-indicative feature sets and refining the detected key events using the retrieved documents in each iteration. Extensive experiments and case studies show EvMine outperforms all the baseline methods and its ablations on two real-world news corpora.« less
    Free, publicly-accessible full text available August 14, 2023
  3. We study the problem of few-shot Fine-grained Entity Typing (FET), where only a few annotated entity mentions with contexts are given for each entity type. Recently, prompt-based tuning has demonstrated superior performance to standard fine-tuning in few-shot scenarios by formulating the entity type classification task as a “fill-in-the-blank” problem. This allows effective utilization of the strong language modeling capability of Pre-trained Language Models (PLMs). Despite the success of current prompt-based tuning approaches, two major challenges remain: (1) the verbalizer in prompts is either manually designed or constructed from external knowledge bases, without considering the target corpus and label hierarchy information, and (2) current approaches mainly utilize the representation power of PLMs, but have not explored their generation power acquired through extensive general-domain pre-training. In this work, we propose a novel framework for fewshot FET consisting of two modules: (1) an entity type label interpretation module automatically learns to relate type labels to the vocabulary by jointly leveraging few-shot instances and the label hierarchy, and (2) a type-based contextualized instance generator produces new instances based on given instances to enlarge the training set for better generalization. On three benchmark datasets, our model outperforms existing methods by significant margins.
    Free, publicly-accessible full text available August 14, 2023
  4. Taxonomies are fundamental to many real-world applications in various domains, serving as structural representations of knowledge. To deal with the increasing volume of new concepts needed to be organized as taxonomies, researchers turn to automatically completion of an existing taxonomy with new concepts. In this paper, we propose TaxoEnrich, a new taxonomy completion framework, which effectively leverages both semantic features and structural information in the existing taxonomy and offers a better representation of candidate position to boost the performance of taxonomy completion. Specifically, TaxoEnrich consists of four components: (1) taxonomy-contextualized embedding which incorporates both semantic meanings of concept and taxonomic relations based on powerful pretrained language models; (2) a taxonomy-aware sequential encoder which learns candidate position representations by encoding the structural information of taxonomy; (3) a query-aware sibling encoder which adaptively aggregates candidate siblings to augment candidate position representations based on their importance to the query-position matching; (4) a query-position matching model which extends existing work with our new candidate position representations. Extensive experiments on four large real-world datasets from different domains show that TaxoEnrich achieves the best performance among all evaluation metrics and outperforms previous state-of-the-art methods by a large margin.
    Free, publicly-accessible full text available April 25, 2023
  5. We study the problem of weakly supervised text classification, which aims to classify text documents into a set of pre-defined categories with category surface names only and without any annotated training document provided. Most existing classifiers leverage textual information in each document. However, in many domains, documents are accompanied by various types of metadata (e.g., authors, venue, and year of a research paper). These metadata and their combinations may serve as strong category indicators in addition to textual contents. In this paper, we explore the potential of using metadata to help weakly supervised text classification. To be specific, we model the relationships between documents and metadata via a heterogeneous information network. To effectively capture higher-order structures in the network, we use motifs to describe metadata combinations. We propose a novel framework, named MotifClass, which (1) selects category-indicative motif instances, (2) retrieves and generates pseudo-labeled training samples based on category names and indicative motif instances, and (3) trains a text classifier using the pseudo training data. Extensive experiments on real-world datasets demonstrate the superior performance of MotifClass to existing weakly supervised text classification approaches. Further analysis shows the benefit of considering higher-order metadata information in our framework.
    Free, publicly-accessible full text available February 11, 2023
  6. null (Ed.)
    Recent years have witnessed the enormous success of text representation learning in a wide range of text mining tasks. Earlier word embedding learning approaches represent words as fixed low-dimensional vectors to capture their semantics. The word embeddings so learned are used as the input features of task-specific models. Recently, pre-trained language models (PLMs), which learn universal language representations via pre-training Transformer-based neural models on large-scale text corpora, have revolutionized the natural language processing (NLP) field. Such pre-trained representations encode generic linguistic features that can be transferred to almost any text-related applications. PLMs outperform previous task-specific models in many applications as they only need to be fine-tuned on the target corpus instead of being trained from scratch. In this tutorial, we introduce recent advances in pre-trained text embeddings and language models, as well as their applications to a wide range of text mining tasks. Specifically, we first overview a set of recently developed self-supervised and weakly-supervised text embedding methods and pre-trained language models that serve as the fundamentals for downstream tasks. We then present several new methods based on pre-trained text embeddings and language models for various text mining applications such as topic discovery and text classification. We focus on methodsmore »that are weakly-supervised, domain-independent, language-agnostic, effective and scalable for mining and discovering structured knowledge from large-scale text corpora. Finally, we demonstrate with real world datasets how pre-trained text representations help mitigate the human annotation burden and facilitate automatic, accurate and efficient text analyses.« less
  7. null (Ed.)
    Identifying and understanding quality phrases from context is a fundamental task in text mining. The most challenging part of this task arguably lies in uncommon, emerging, and domain-specific phrases. The infrequent nature of these phrases significantly hurts the performance of phrase mining methods that rely on sufficient phrase occurrences in the input corpus. Context-aware tagging models, though not restricted by frequency, heavily rely on domain experts for either massive sentence-level gold labels or handcrafted gazetteers. In this work, we propose UCPhrase, a novel unsupervised context-aware quality phrase tagger. Specifically, we induce high-quality phrase spans as silver labels from consistently co-occurring word sequences within each document. Compared with typical context-agnostic distant supervision based on existing knowledge bases (KBs), our silver labels root deeply in the input domain and context, thus having unique advantages in preserving contextual completeness and capturing emerging, out-of-KB phrases. Training a conventional neural tagger based on silver labels usually faces the risk of overfitting phrase surface names. Alternatively, we observe that the contextualized attention maps generated from a Transformer-based neural language model effectively reveal the connections between words in a surface-agnostic way. Therefore, we pair such attention maps with the silver labels to train a lightweight span predictionmore »model, which can be applied to new input to recognize (unseen) quality phrases regardless of their surface names or frequency. Thorough experiments on various tasks and datasets, including corpus-level phrase ranking, document-level keyphrase extraction, and sentence-level phrase tagging, demonstrate the superiority of our design over state-of-the-art pre-trained, unsupervised, and distantly supervised methods.« less
  8. Zhi (Ed.)

    Network representation learning aims at transferring node proximity in networks into distributed vectors, which can be leveraged in various downstream applications. Recent research has shown that nodes in a network can often be organized in latent hierarchical structures, but without a particular underlying taxonomy, the learned node embedding is less useful nor interpretable. In this work, we aim to improve network embedding by modeling the conditional node proximity in networks indicated by node labels residing in real taxonomies. In the meantime, we also aim to model the hierarchical label proximity in the given taxonomies, which is too coarse by solely looking at the hierarchical topologies. Comprehensive experiments and case studies demonstrate the utility of TAXOGAN.

  9. Event extraction has long been treated as a sentence-level task in the IE community. We argue that this setting does not match human information seeking behavior and leads to incomplete and uninformative extraction results. We propose a document-level neural event argument extraction model by formulating the task as conditional generation following event templates. We also compile a new document-level event extraction benchmark dataset WIKIEVENTS which includes complete event and coreference annotation. On the task of argument extraction, we achieve an absolute gain of 7.6% F1 and 5.7% F1 over the next best model on the RAMS and WIKIEVENTS datasets respectively. On the more challenging task of informative argument extraction, which requires implicit coreference reasoning, we achieve a 9.3% F1 gain over the best baseline. To demonstrate the portability of our model, we also create the first end-to-end zero-shot event extraction framework and achieve 97% of fully supervised model’s trigger extraction performance and 82% of the argument extraction performance given only access to 10 out of the 33 types on ACE.
  10. Hierarchical multi-label text classification (HMTC) aims to tag each document with a set of classes from a class hierarchy. Most existing HMTC methods train classifiers using massive human-labeled documents, which are often too costly to obtain in real-world applications. In this paper, we explore to conduct HMTC based on only class surface names as supervision signals. We observe that to perform HMTC, human experts typically first pinpoint a few most essential classes for the document as its “core classes”, and then check core classes’ ancestor classes to ensure the coverage. To mimic human experts, we propose a novel HMTC framework, named TaxoClass. Specifically, TaxoClass (1) calculates document-class similarities using a textual entailment model, (2) identifies a document’s core classes and utilizes confident core classes to train a taxonomyenhanced classifier, and (3) generalizes the classifier via multi-label self-training. Our experiments on two challenging datasets show TaxoClass can achieve around 0.71 Example- F1 using only class names, outperforming the best previous method by 25%.