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  1. Abstract

    Objective.Neural activity represents a functional readout of neurons that is increasingly important to monitor in a wide range of experiments. Extracellular recordings have emerged as a powerful technique for measuring neural activity because these methods do not lead to the destruction or degradation of the cells being measured. Current approaches to electrophysiology have a low throughput of experiments due to manual supervision and expensive equipment. This bottleneck limits broader inferences that can be achieved with numerous long-term recorded samples.Approach.We developed Piphys, an inexpensive open source neurophysiological recording platform that consists of both hardware and software. It is easily accessed and controlled via a standard web interface through Internet of Things (IoT) protocols.Main results.We used a Raspberry Pi as the primary processing device along with an Intan bioamplifier. We designed a hardware expansion circuit board and software to enable voltage sampling and user interaction. This standalone system was validated with primary human neurons, showing reliability in collecting neural activity in near real-time.Significance.The hardware modules and cloud software allow for remote control of neural recording experiments as well as horizontal scalability, enabling long-term observations of development, organization, and neural activity at scale.

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  2. Event detection in power systems aims to identify triggers and event types, which helps relevant personnel respond to emergencies promptly and facilitates the optimization of power supply strategies. However, the limited length of short electrical record texts causes severe information sparsity, and numerous domain-specific terminologies of power systems makes it difficult to transfer knowledge from language models pre-trained on general-domain texts. Traditional event detection approaches primarily focus on the general domain and ignore these two problems in the power system domain. To address the above issues, we propose a Multi-Channel graph neural network utilizing Type information for Event Detection in power systems, named MC-TED , leveraging a semantic channel and a topological channel to enrich information interaction from short texts. Concretely, the semantic channel refines textual representations with semantic similarity, building the semantic information interaction among potential event-related words. The topological channel generates a relation-type-aware graph modeling word dependencies, and a word-type-aware graph integrating part-of-speech tags. To further reduce errors worsened by professional terminologies in type analysis, a type learning mechanism is designed for updating the representations of both the word type and relation type in the topological channel. In this way, the information sparsity and professional term occurrence problems can be alleviated by enabling interaction between topological and semantic information. Furthermore, to address the lack of labeled data in power systems, we built a Chinese event detection dataset based on electrical Power Event texts, named PoE . In experiments, our model achieves compelling results not only on the PoE dataset, but on general-domain event detection datasets including ACE 2005 and MAVEN. 
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    Free, publicly-accessible full text available August 31, 2024
  3. Collecting large-scale medical datasets with fully annotated samples for training of deep networks is prohibitively expensive, especially for 3D volume data. Recent breakthroughs in self-supervised learning (SSL) offer the ability to overcome the lack of labeled training samples by learning feature representations from unlabeled data. However, most current SSL techniques in the medical field have been designed for either 2D images or 3D volumes. In practice, this restricts the capability to fully leverage unlabeled data from numerous sources, which may include both 2D and 3D data. Additionally, the use of these pre-trained networks is constrained to downstream tasks with compatible data dimensions.In this paper, we propose a novel framework for unsupervised joint learning on 2D and 3D data modalities. Given a set of 2D images or 2D slices extracted from 3D volumes, we construct an SSL task based on a 2D contrastive clustering problem for distinct classes. The 3D volumes are exploited by computing vectored embedding at each slice and then assembling a holistic feature through deformable self-attention mechanisms in Transformer, allowing incorporating long-range dependencies between slices inside 3D volumes. These holistic features are further utilized to define a novel 3D clustering agreement-based SSL task and masking embedding prediction inspired by pre-trained language models. Experiments on downstream tasks, such as 3D brain segmentation, lung nodule detection, 3D heart structures segmentation, and abnormal chest X-ray detection, demonstrate the effectiveness of our joint 2D and 3D SSL approach. We improve plain 2D Deep-ClusterV2 and SwAV by a significant margin and also surpass various modern 2D and 3D SSL approaches. 
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    Free, publicly-accessible full text available June 27, 2024
  4. Free, publicly-accessible full text available June 1, 2024
  5. Free, publicly-accessible full text available May 29, 2024