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  1. Recent studies have shown that deep reinforcement learning agents are vulnerable to small adversarial perturbations on the agent’s inputs, which raises concerns about deploying such agents in the real world. To address this issue, we propose RADIAL-RL, a principled framework to train reinforcement learning agents with improved robustness against lp-norm bounded adversarial attacks. Our framework is compatible with popular deep reinforcement learning algorithms and we demonstrate its performance with deep Q-learning, A3C and PPO. We experiment on three deep RL benchmarks (Atari, MuJoCo and ProcGen) to show the effectiveness of our robust training algorithm. Our RADIAL-RL agents consistently outperform prior methods when tested against attacks of varying strength and are more computationally efficient to train. In addition, we propose a new evaluation method called Greedy Worst-Case Reward (GWC) to measure attack agnostic robustness of deep RL agents. We show that GWC can be evaluated efficiently and is a good estimate of the reward under the worst possible sequence of adversarial attacks. All code used for our experiments is available at https://github.com/tuomaso/radial_rl_v2. 
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  2. Recent research shows that the dynamics of an infinitely wide neural network (NN) trained by gradient descent can be characterized by Neural Tangent Kernel (NTK) [27]. Under the squared loss, the infinite-width NN trained by gradient descent with an infinitely small learning rate is equivalent to kernel regression with NTK [4]. However, the equivalence is only known for ridge regression currently [6], while the equivalence between NN and other kernel machines (KMs), e.g. support vector machine (SVM), remains unknown. Therefore, in this work, we propose to establish the equivalence between NN and SVM, and specifically, the infinitely wide NN trained by soft margin loss and the standard soft margin SVM with NTK trained by subgradient descent. Our main theoretical results include establishing the equivalence between NN and a broad family of L2 regularized KMs with finite width bounds, which cannot be handled by prior work, and showing that every finite-width NN trained by such regularized loss functions is approximately a KM. Furthermore, we demonstrate our theory can enable three practical applications, including (i) non-vacuous generalization bound of NN via the corresponding KM; (ii) nontrivial robustness certificate for the infinite-width NN (while existing robustness verification methods would provide vacuous bounds); (iii) intrinsically more robust infinite-width NNs than those from previous kernel regression. 
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