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  1. Judith Clifton, Marcos Fernandez-Gutierrez (Ed.)
    This paper chronicles the emergence of digital identity as a legal concept, how digital identity has grown in importance at the national level over the past decades and is now poised to become even more important internationally. This work builds on existing scholarship, to consider the next evolution of digital identity from what is now essentially a national concept into a global, legal concept. The examination looks to the likely emergence of a global digital identity for individuals in the near future and asks how that could be achieved. The authors examine the use of blockchain technology as a possible foundation of a global digital identity, along with the necessary development of existing international law on individual rights to support a global digital identity for all. Blockchain is viewed as relatively more secure and it enables individuals to have more control over how their identity information is managed and used. Blockchain‚Äôs traceability pro vides advantages for government and the private sector in man aging and verifying identity. It aids the integrity of identity information and related transactions. However, it is important to note that, while blockchain has advantages, its relative immutability can lead to the creation and use of false digital identities that cannot be easily detected or corrected. As this paper discusses, this aspect can undermine the integrity and reliability of digital identity nationally and internationally. Given that blockchain tech nology is fallible, the authors argue that international law has a vital role now and in the future in recognizing the right to digital identity and establishing norms of conduct. 
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    Free, publicly-accessible full text available October 14, 2024
  2. Recent work has recognized the importance of developing and deploying software systems that reflect human values and has explored different approaches for eliciting these values from stakeholders. However, prior studies have also shown that it can be challenging for stakeholders to specify a diverse set of product-related human values. In this paper we therefore explore the use of ChatGPT for generating user stories that describe candidate human values. These generated stories provide inspiration to stakeholder discussions and enrich the human-created user stories. We engineer a series of ChatGPT prompts to retrieve a list of common stakeholders and candidate features for a targeted product, and then, for each pairwise combination of role and feature, and for each individual Schwartz value, we issue an additional prompt to generate a candidate user story reflecting that value. We present the candidate user-stories to stakeholders and, as part of a creative requirements engineering session, we ask them to assess and prioritize the generated user-stories, and then use them as inspiration for discussing and specifying their own product-related human values. Through conducting a series of focus groups we compare the human-values created by stakeholders with and without the benefit of the ChatGPT examples. Results are evaluated with respect to coverage of values, clarity of expression, internal completeness, and through feedback from our participants. Results from our analysis show that the ChatGPT-generated user stories are able to provide creativity triggers that help stakeholders to specify human values for a product. 
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    Free, publicly-accessible full text available September 1, 2024
  3. Software systems are increasingly expected to address a broad range of stakeholder values representing both personal and societal values as well as values ensconced as laws and regulations. Whereas laws and regulations must be fully addressed, other human values need to be carefully analyzed and prioritized within the context of candidate architectural designs. The majority of prior work has investigated requirements engineering techniques for either regulatory compliance or for human-values, we take an integrated approach which simultaneously considers laws and regulations as well as societal and personal human values throughout the system analysis, specification, and design process. We illustrate our approach through detailed examples drawn from a multi-drone system regulated by the USA Federal Aviation Authority (FAA) and operating in a domain rich with human and societal values. We then discuss requirements engineering challenges and solutions unique to identifying analyzing, and prioritizing human, societal, and regulatory requirements, and ultimately for designing accountable software systems. 
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    Free, publicly-accessible full text available September 1, 2024
  4. Measuring trust in different Blockchain application contexts is challenging. There is a gap between building an accountable system with Blockchain and measuring the actual trust enhancement. This paper reviews trust factors in different Blockchain application contexts. We propose a trust assessment model for accountable trust factor collection while accounting for both quantitative and qualitative aspects of trust assessment. Our goal is to help users determine the trustworthiness of an entity by analyzing trust factors collected from intermediaries during business transactions. We use security and incentive assumptions to enhance the reliability of trust assessment data on Blockchain. 
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