skip to main content

Title: Agile frequency transformations for dense wavelength-multiplexed communications

The broad bandwidth and spectral efficiency of photonics has facilitated unparalleled speeds in long-distance lightwave communication. Yet efficient routing and control of photonic information without optical-to-electrical conversion remains an ongoing research challenge. Here, we demonstrate a practical approach for dynamically transforming the carrier frequencies of dense wavelength-division–multiplexed data. Combining phase modulators and pulse shapers into an all-optical frequency processor, we realize both cyclic channel hopping and 1-to-Nbroadcasting of input data streams for systems withN = 2 andN = 3 users. Our method involves no optical-to-electrical conversion and enables low-noise, reconfigurable routing of fiber-optic signals with in principle arbitrary wavelength operations in a single platform, offering new potential for low-latency all-optical networking.

; ; ; ; ;
Award ID(s):
Publication Date:
Journal Name:
Optics Express
Page Range or eLocation-ID:
Article No. 20379
1094-4087; OPEXFF
Optical Society of America
Sponsoring Org:
National Science Foundation
More Like this
  1. Abstract

    An emerging chalcogenide perovskite, CaZrSe3, holds promise for energy conversion applications given its notable optical and electrical properties. However, knowledge of its thermal properties is extremely important, e.g. for potential thermoelectric applications, and has not been previously reported in detail. In this work, we examine and explain the lattice thermal transport mechanisms in CaZrSe3using density functional theory and Boltzmann transport calculations. We find the mean relaxation time to be extremely short corroborating an enhanced phonon–phonon scattering that annihilates phonon modes, and lowers thermal conductivity. In addition, strong anharmonicity in the perovskite crystal represented by the Grüneisen parameter predictions, and low phonon number density for the acoustic modes, results in the lattice thermal conductivity to be limited to 1.17 W m−1 K−1. The average phonon mean free path in the bulk CaZrSe3sample (N → ∞) is 138.1 nm and nanostructuring CaZrSe3sample to ~10 nm diminishes the thermal conductivity to 0.23 W m−1 K−1. We also find that p-type doping yields higher predictions of thermoelectric figure of merit than n-type doping, and values ofZT~0.95–1 are found for hole concentrations in the range 1016–1017 cm−3and temperature between 600 and 700 K.

  2. We present the first all-optical network, Baldur, to enable power-efficient and high-speed communications in future exascale computing systems. The essence of Baldur is its ability to perform packet routing on-the-fly in the optical domain using an emerging technology called the transistor laser (TL), which presents interesting opportunities and challenges at the system level. Optical packet switching readily eliminates many inefficiencies associated with the crossings between optical and electrical domains. However, TL gates consume high power at the current technology node, which makes TL-based buffering and optical clock recovery impractical. Consequently, we must adopt novel (bufferless and clock-less) architecture and design approaches that are substantially different from those used in current networks. At the architecture level, we support a bufferless design by turning to techniques that have fallen out of favor for current networks. Baldur uses a low-radix, multi-stage network with a simple routing algorithm that drops packets to handle congestion, and we further incorporate path multiplicity and randomness to minimize packet drops. This design also minimizes the number of TL gates needed in each switch. At the logic design level, a non-conventional, length-based data encoding scheme is used to eliminate the need for clock recovery. We thoroughly validate and evaluatemore »Baldur using a circuit simulator and a network simulator. Our results show that Baldur achieves up to 3,000X lower average latency while consuming 3.2X-26.4X less power than various state-of-the art networks under a wide variety of traffic patterns and real workloads, for the scale of 1,024 server nodes. Baldur is also highly scalable, since its power per node stays relatively constant as we increase the network size to over 1 million server nodes, which corresponds to 14.6X-31.0X power improvements compared to state-of-the-art networks at this scale.« less
  3. Abstract

    The recently proposed concept of graphene photodetectors offers remarkable properties such as unprecedented compactness, ultrabroadband detection, and an ultrafast response speed. However, owing to the low optical absorption of pristine monolayer graphene, the intrinsically low responsivity of graphene photodetectors significantly hinders the development of practical devices. To address this issue, numerous efforts have thus far been made to enhance the light–graphene interaction using plasmonic structures. These approaches, however, can be significantly advanced by leveraging the other critical aspect of graphene photoresponsivity enhancement—electrical junction control. It has been reported that the dominant photocarrier generation mechanism in graphene is the photothermoelectric (PTE) effect. Thus, the two energy conversion mechanisms involved in the graphene photodetection process are light-to-heat and heat-to-electricity conversions. In this work, we propose a meticulously designed device architecture to simultaneously enhance the two conversion efficiencies. Specifically, a gap plasmon structure is used to absorb a major portion of the incident light to induce localized heating, and a pair of split gates is used to produce a p-n junction in graphene to augment the PTE current generation. The gap plasmon structure and the split gates are designed to share common key components so that the proposed device architecture concurrently realizesmore »both optical and electrical enhancements. We experimentally demonstrate the dominance of the PTE effect in graphene photocurrent generation and observe a 25-fold increase in the generated photocurrent compared to the un-enhanced cases. While further photocurrent enhancement can be achieved by applying a DC bias, the proposed device concept shows vast potential for practical applications.

    « less
  4. Many emerging, high-speed, reconfigurable optical systems are limited by routing complexity when producing dynamic, two-dimensional (2D) electric fields. We propose a gradient-based inverse-designed, static phase-mask doublet to generate arbitrary 2D intensity wavefronts using a one-dimensional (1D) intensity spatial light modulator (SLM). We numerically simulate the capability of mapping each point in a 49 element 1D array to a distinct7×<#comment/>72D spatial distribution. Our proposed method will significantly relax the routing complexity of electrical control signals, possibly enabling high-speed, sub-wavelength 2D SLMs leveraging new materials and pixel architectures.

  5. An optical circuit-switched network core has the potential to overcome the inherent challenges of a conventional electrical packet-switched core of today's compute clusters. As optical circuit switches (OCS) directly handle the photon beams without any optical-electrical-optical (O/E/O) conversion and packet processing, OCS-based network cores have the following desirable properties: a) agnostic to data-rate, b) negligible/zero power consumption, c) no need of transceivers, d) negligible forwarding latency, and e) no need for frequent upgrade. Unfortunately, OCS can only provide point-to-point (unicast) circuits. They do not have built-in support for one-to-many (multicast) communication, yet multicast is fundamental to a plethora of data-intensive applications running on compute clusters nowadays. In this paper, we propose Shufflecast, a novel optical network architecture for next-generation compute clusters that can support high-performance multicast satisfying all the properties of an OCS-based network core. Shufflecast leverages small fanout, inexpensive, passive optical splitters to connect the Top-of-rack (ToR) switch ports, ensuring data-rate agnostic, low-power, physical-layer multicast. We thoroughly analyze Shufflecast's highly scalable data plane, light-weight control plane, and graceful failure handling. Further, we implement a complete prototype of Shufflecast in our testbed and extensively evaluate the network. Shufflecast is more power-efficient than the state-of-the-art multicast mechanisms. Also, Shufflecast is moremore »cost-efficient than a conventional packet-switched network. By adding Shufflecast alongside an OCS-based unicast network, an all-optical network core with the aforementioned desirable properties supporting both unicast and multicast can be realized.« less