Mafic volcanic activity is dominated by effusive to mildly explosive eruptions. Plinian and ignimbrite-forming mafic eruptions, while rare, are also possible; however, the conditions that promote such explosivity are still being explored. Eruption style is determined by the ability of gas to escape as magma ascends, which tends to be easier in low-viscosity, mafic magmas. If magma permeability is sufficiently high to reduce bubble overpressure during ascent, volatiles may escape from the magma, inhibiting violent explosive activity. In contrast, if the permeability is sufficiently low to retain the gas phase within the magma during ascent, bubble overpressure may drive magma fragmentation. Rapid ascent may induce disequilibrium crystallization, increasing viscosity and affecting the bubble network with consequences for permeability, and hence, explosivity. To explore the conditions that promote strongly explosive mafic volcanism, we combine microlite textural analyses with synchrotron x-ray computed microtomography of 10 pyroclasts from the 12.6 ka mafic Curacautín Ignimbrite (Llaima Volcano, Chile). We quantify microlite crystal size distributions (CSD), microlite number densities, porosity, bubble interconnectivity, bubble number density, and geometrical properties of the porous media to investigate the role of magma degassing processes at mafic explosive eruptions. We use an analytical technique to estimate permeability and tortuosity bymore »
D/H ratios and H2O contents record degassing and rehydration history of rhyolitic magma and pyroclasts
Volcanic eruptions of rhyolitic magma often show shifts from powerful (Vulcanian to Plinian) explosive episodes to a more gentle effusion of viscous lava forming obsidian flows. Another prevailing characteris-tic of these eruptions is the presence of pyroclastic obsidians intermingled with the explosive tephra. This dense, juvenile product is similar to the tephra and obsidian flow in composition, but is generally less degassed than its flow counterpart. The formation mechanism(s) of pyroclastic obsidians and the information they can provide concerning the extent to which magma degassing modulates the eruptive style of rhyolitic eruptions are currently subject to active research. Porous tephra and pyroclastic and flow obsidians from the 1060CE Glass Mountain rhyolitic eruption at Medicine Lake Volcano (California) were analyzed for their porosity, φ, water content, H2O, and hydrogen isotopic composition, δD. H2O in porous pyroclasts is correlated negatively with δD and positively with φ, indicating that the samples were affected by post-eruptive rehydration. Numerical modeling suggests that this rehydration occurred at an average rate of 10−23.5±0.5m2s−1during the ∼960 years since the eruption, causing some pyroclasts to gain up to 1 wt%of meteoric water. Pyroclastic and flow obsidians were not affected by rehydration due to their very low porosity. Comparison between more »
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Mafic explosive volcanism at Llaima Volcano: 3D x-ray microtomography reconstruction of pyroclasts to constrain shallow conduit processes
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Abstract Volcán Quizapu, Chile, is an under-monitored volcano that was the site of two historical eruptions: an effusive eruption in 1846–1847 and a Plinian eruption in 1932, both of which discharged ∼5 km3 (dense rock equivalent) of lava and/or tephra. The majority of material erupted in both cases is trachydacite, nearly identical for each event. We present H2O-saturated, phase equilibrium experiments on this end-member dacite magma, using a pumice sample from the 1932 eruption as the main starting material. At an oxygen fugacity (fO2) of ∼NNO + 0·2 (where NNO is the nickel–nickel oxide buffer), the phase assemblage of An25–30 plagioclase + amphibole + orthopyroxene, without biotite, is stable at 865 ± 10 °C and 110 ± 20 MPa H2O pressure (PH2O), corresponding to ∼4 km depth. At these conditions, experiments also reproduce the quenched glass composition of the starting pumice. At slightly higher PH2O and below 860 °C, biotite joins the equilibrium assemblage. Because biotite is not part of the observed Quizapu phase assemblage, its presence places an upper limit on PH2O. At the determined storage PH2O of ∼110 MPa, H2O undersaturation of the magma with XH2Ofluid = 0·87 would align Ptotal to mineral-based geobarometry estimates of ∼130 MPa. However, XH2Ofluid < 1 is not required to reproduce the Quizapu dacite phasemore »
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