Pneumatically tunable optofluidic DFB dye laser using corrugated sidewalls

Polydimethylsiloxane-based optofluidics provides a powerful platform for a complete analytical lab-on-chip. Here, we report on a novel on-chip laser source that can be integrated with sample preparation and analysis functions. A corrugated sidewall structure is integrated into a microfluidic channel to form a distributed feedback (DFB) laser using rhodamine 6G dissolved in an ethylene glycol and water solution. Lasing is demonstrated with a threshold pump power of 87.9 µW, corresponding to a pump intensity of$52.7mW/cm2$. Laser threshold and output power are optimized with respect to rhodamine 6G concentration and core index and found to be in good agreement with a rate equation model. Additionally, the laser can be switched on and off mechanically using a pneumatic cell inducing positive pressure on the grating.

Authors:
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Publication Date:
NSF-PAR ID:
10199288
Journal Name:
Optics Letters
Volume:
45
Issue:
21
Page Range or eLocation-ID:
Article No. 5978
ISSN:
0146-9592; OPLEDP
Publisher:
Optical Society of America
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2. We have studied spectra and angular distribution of emission in Fabry–Perot cavities formed by two silver mirrors separated by a layer of poly (methyl methacrylate) polymer doped with rhodamine 6G (R6G) dye in low ($20g/l$) and high ($200g/l$) concentrations. The frequency of emission radiated to a cavity mode was larger at large outcoupling angles—the “rainbow” effect. At the same time, the angle of the strongest emission was also determined by the cavity size: the larger the cavity, the larger the angle. The angular distribution of emission is commonly dominated by two symmetrical lobes (located at the intersection of the three-dimensional emission cone with a horizontal plane) pointing to the left and to the right of the normal to the sample. Despite the strong Stokes shift in R6G dye, the branch of the cavity dispersion curve obtained in the emission experiment is positioned above the one obtained in the reflection (extinction) experiment. Some dye molecules are poorly coupled to cavity modes. Their emission has very broad angular distribution with the maximum at$θ<#comment/>=0∘<#comment/>$. The signatures of strong cavity–exciton coupling were observed at high dye concentrationmore »
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5. Electro-optic quantum coherent interfaces map the amplitude and phase of a quantum signal directly to the phase or intensity of a probe beam. At terahertz frequencies, a fundamental challenge is not only to sense such weak signals (due to a weak coupling with a probe in the near-infrared) but also to resolve them in the time domain. Cavity confinement of both light fields can increase the interaction and achieve strong coupling. Using this approach, current realizations are limited to low microwave frequencies. Alternatively, in bulk crystals, electro-optic sampling was shown to reach quantum-level sensitivity of terahertz waves. Yet, the coupling strength was extremely weak. Here, we propose an on-chip architecture that concomitantly provides subcycle temporal resolution and an extreme sensitivity to sense terahertz intracavity fields below 20 V/m. We use guided femtosecond pulses in the near-infrared and a confinement of the terahertz wave to a volume of$VTHz∼<#comment/>10−<#comment/>9(λ<#comment/>THz/2)3$in combination with ultraperformant organic molecules ($r33=170pm/V$) and accomplish a record-high single-photon electro-optic coupling rate of, 10,000 times higher than in recent reports of sensing vacuum field fluctuations in bulk media. Via homodyne detection implemented directly on chip, the interaction results into an intensity modulation of the femtosecond pulses. The single-photon cooperativity is$C0=1.6×<#comment/>10−<#comment/>8$, and the multiphoton cooperativity is$C=0.002$at room temperature. We show$><#comment/>70dB$dynamic range in intensity at 500 ms integration under irradiation with a weak coherent terahertz field. Similar devices could be employed in future measurements of quantum states in the terahertz at the standard quantum limit, or for entanglement of subsystems on subcycle temporal scales, such as terahertz and near-infrared quantum bits.