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- 23488 to 23496
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- National Science Foundation
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Resonant tunneling diodes (RTDs) have come full-circle in the past 10 years after their demonstration in the early 1990s as the fastest room-temperature semiconductor oscillator, displaying experimental results up to 712 GHz and fmax values exceeding 1.0 THz . Now the RTD is once again the preeminent electronic oscillator above 1.0 THz and is being implemented as a coherent source  and a self-oscillating mixer , amongst other applications. This paper concerns RTD electroluminescence – an effect that has been studied very little in the past 30+ years of RTD development, and not at room temperature. We present experiments and modeling of an n-type In0.53Ga0.47As/AlAs double-barrier RTD operating as a cross-gap light emitter at ~300K. The MBE-growth stack is shown in Fig. 1(a). A 15-μm-diam-mesa device was defined by standard planar processing including a top annular ohmic contact with a 5-μm-diam pinhole in the center to couple out enough of the internal emission for accurate free-space power measurements . The emission spectra have the behavior displayed in Fig. 1(b), parameterized by bias voltage (VB). The long wavelength emission edge is at = 1684 nm - close to the In0.53Ga0.47As bandgap energy of Ug ≈ 0.75 eV at 300 K.more »
In the ferroelectric devices, polarization control is usually accomplished by application of an electric field. In this paper, we demonstrate optically induced polarization switching in BaTiO3-based ferroelectric heterostructures utilizing a two-dimensional narrow-gap semiconductor MoS2as a top electrode. This effect is attributed to the redistribution of the photo-generated carriers and screening charges at the MoS2/BaTiO3interface. Specifically, a two-step process, which involves formation of intra-layer excitons during light absorption followed by their decay into inter-layer excitons, results in the positive charge accumulation at the interface forcing the polarization reversal from the upward to the downward direction. Theoretical modeling of the MoS2optical absorption spectra with and without the applied electric field provides quantitative support for the proposed mechanism. It is suggested that the discovered effect is of general nature and should be observable in any heterostructure comprising a ferroelectric and a narrow gap semiconductor.
Abstract Multi-functional thin films of boron (B) doped Cr 2 O 3 exhibit voltage-controlled and nonvolatile Néel vector reorientation in the absence of an applied magnetic field, H . Toggling of antiferromagnetic states is demonstrated in prototype device structures at CMOS compatible temperatures between 300 and 400 K. The boundary magnetization associated with the Néel vector orientation serves as state variable which is read via magnetoresistive detection in a Pt Hall bar adjacent to the B:Cr 2 O 3 film. Switching of the Hall voltage between zero and non-zero values implies Néel vector rotation by 90 degrees. Combined magnetometry, spin resolved inverse photoemission, electric transport and scanning probe microscopy measurements reveal B-dependent T N and resistivity enhancement, spin-canting, anisotropy reduction, dynamic polarization hysteresis and gate voltage dependent orientation of boundary magnetization. The combined effect enables H = 0, voltage controlled, nonvolatile Néel vector rotation at high-temperature. Theoretical modeling estimates switching speeds of about 100 ps making B:Cr 2 O 3 a promising multifunctional single-phase material for energy efficient nonvolatile CMOS compatible memory applications.
Spin and valley degrees of freedom in materials without inversion symmetry promise previously unknown device functionalities, such as spin-valleytronics. Control of material symmetry with electric fields (ferroelectricity), while breaking additional symmetries, including mirror symmetry, could yield phenomena where chirality, spin, valley, and crystal potential are strongly coupled. Here we report the synthesis of a halide perovskite semiconductor that is simultaneously photoferroelectricity switchable and chiral. Spectroscopic and structural analysis, and first-principles calculations, determine the material to be a previously unknown low-dimensional hybrid perovskite (R)-(−)-1-cyclohexylethylammonium/(S)-(+)-1 cyclohexylethylammonium) PbI 3 . Optical and electrical measurements characterize its semiconducting, ferroelectric, switchable pyroelectricity and switchable photoferroelectric properties. Temperature dependent structural, dielectric and transport measurements reveal a ferroelectric-paraelectric phase transition. Circular dichroism spectroscopy confirms its chirality. The development of a material with such a combination of these properties will facilitate the exploration of phenomena such as electric field and chiral enantiomer–dependent Rashba-Dresselhaus splitting and circular photogalvanic effects.
Ha, D. (Ed.)An optimization principle for ferroelectric FET (FeFET), centered around charge matching between the ferroelectric and its underlying semiconductor, is theoretically investigated. This letter shows that, by properly reducing the ferroelectric polarization charge and its background dielectric constant, charge matching can be improved to enable simultaneously: i) reduction of the interlayer and semiconductor electric fields during programming, reading, and retention, leading to prolonged endurance and retention; ii) improvement of the memory window; and iii) suppression of device-to-device variations by affording full polarization switching. These attributes provide an incentive for the presentation of the proposed guidelines for FeFET optimization as detailed in this letter.