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  1. Abstract

    Ferroelectric tunneling junctions (FTJs) with tunable tunneling electroresistance (TER) are promising for many emerging applications, including non-volatile memories and neurosynaptic computing. One of the key challenges in FTJs is the balance between the polarization value and the tunneling current. In order to achieve a sizable on-current, the thickness of the ferroelectric layer needs to be scaled down below 5 nm. However, the polarization in these ultra-thin ferroelectric layers is very small, which leads to a low tunneling electroresistance (TER) ratio. In this paper, we propose and demonstrate a new type of FTJ based on metal/Al2O3/Zr-doped HfO2/Si structure. The interfacial Al2O3layer and silicon substrate enable sizable TERs even when the thickness of Zr-doped HfO2(HZO) is above 10 nm. We found that F-N tunneling dominates at read voltages and that the polarization switching in HZO can alter the effective tunneling barrier height and tune the tunneling resistance. The FTJ synapses based on Al2O3/HZO stacks show symmetric potentiation/depression characteristics and widely tunable conductance. We also show that spike-timing-dependent plasticity (STDP) can be harnessed from HZO based FTJs. These novel FTJs will have high potential in non-volatile memories and neural network applications.

  2. Lateral multiheterostructures with spatially modulated bandgaps have great potential for applications in high-performance electronic, optoelectronic and thermoelectric devices. Multiheterostructures based on transition metal tellurides are especially promising due to their tunable bandgap in a wide range and the rich variety of structural phases. However, the synthesis of telluride-based multiheterostructures remains a challenge due to the low activity of tellurium and the poor thermal stability of tellurium alloys. In this work, we synthesized monolayer WSe 2−2 x Te 2 x /WSe 2−2 y Te 2 y ( x > y ) multiheterostructures in situ using chemical vapor deposition (CVD). Photoluminescence analysis and Raman mapping confirm the spatial modulation of the bandgap in the radial direction. Furthermore, field-effect transistors with the channels parallel (type I) and perpendicular (type II) to the multiheterostructure rings were fabricated. Type I transistors exhibit enhanced ambipolar transport, due to the low energy bridges between the source and drain. Remarkably, the photocurrents in type I transistors are two orders of magnitude higher than those in type II transistors, which can be attributed to the fact that the photovoltaic photocurrents generated at the two heterojunctions are summed together in type I transistors, but they cancel each other in typemore »II transistors. These multiheterostructures will provide a new platform for novel electronic/photonic devices with potential applications in broadband light sensing, highly sensitive imaging and ultrafast optoelectronic integrated circuits.« less
  3. In this work, we investigated vertical transistors with thin MoTe2 channels. The top and bottom contacts are asymmetrically doped under the electrostatic bias from the back gate. Reconfigurable polarity is observed in the vertical transistor under different current directions. Our results demonstrate short channel vertical transistors based on 2D semiconductor MoTe2 and provide a simple way to achieve run-time reconfiguration without additional control gates, which will be helpful to the design of highly-scaled and high-efficient integrated circuits.
  4. Alloying in two-dimensional (2D) transition metal dichalcogenides (TMD) has allowed bandgap engineering and phase transformation, which provide more flexibility and functionality for electronic and photonic devices. To date, many ternary TMD alloys with homogenous compositions have been synthesized. However, realization of bandgap modulation spatially within a single TMD nanosheet remains largely unexplored. In this work, we demonstrate the synthesis of spatially composition-graded WSe2xTe2-2x flakes using an in situ chemical vapor deposition method. The photoluminescence and Raman spectra line-scanning characterization indicate a spatially graded bandgap, which increases from 1.46 eV (center) to 1.61 eV (edge) within one monolayer flake. Furthermore, the electronic devices based on this spatially graded material exhibit tunable transfer characteristics.
  5. The developing material class of van der Waals (vdW) magnets has attracted great interest due to their novel properties such as gate and strain tunable magnetism. Magnetism at the atomic limit remains difficult to explore however due to the air instability of most vdW ferromagnets. In this work, we demonstrate that pre-fabricated Hall bar electrodes can be used to probe magnetism in Fe3GeTe2 (FGT) flakes via the anomalous Hall effect. Utilizing this device structure, we systematically investigated the magnetic properties of FGT. Clear ferromagnetic hysteresis windows were clearly observed at temperatures up to 200 K. These vdW Hall bar structures provides a highly efficient and damage-free strategy for metal integration, which could be used in many other 2D magnetic materials.
  6. Indium Selenide (In 2 Se 3 ) is a newly emerged van der Waals (vdW) ferroelectric material, which unlike traditional insulating ferroelectric materials, is a semiconductor with a bandgap of about 1.36 eV. Ferroelectric diodes and transistors based on In 2 Se 3 have been demonstrated. However, the interplay between light and electric polarization in In 2 Se 3 has not been explored. In this paper, we found that the polarization in In 2 Se 3 can be programmed by optical stimuli, due to its semiconducting nature, where the photo generated carriers in In 2 Se 3 can alter the screening field and lead to polarization reversal. Utilizing these unique properties of In 2 Se 3 , we demonstrated a new type of multifunctional device based on 2D heterostructures, which can concurrently serve as a logic gate, photodetector, electronic memory and photonic memory. This dual electrical and optical operation of the memories can simplify the device architecture and offer additional functionalities, such as ultrafast optical erase of large memory arrays. In addition, we show that dual-gate structure can address the partial switching problem commonly observed in In 2 Se 3 ferroelectric transistors, as the two gates can enhance the verticalmore »electric field and facilitate the polarization switching in the semiconducting In 2 Se 3 . These discovered effects are of general nature and should be observable in any ferroelectric semiconductor. These findings deepen the understanding of polarization switching and light-polarization interaction in semiconducting ferroelectric materials and open up their applications in multifunctional electronic and photonic devices.« less