skip to main content

Title: Geometry of variational methods: dynamics of closed quantum systems
We present a systematic geometric framework to study closed quantum systems based on suitably chosen variational families. For the purpose of (A) real time evolution, (B) excitation spectra, (C) spectral functions and (D) imaginary time evolution, we show how the geometric approach highlights the necessity to distinguish between two classes of manifolds: Kähler and non-Kähler. Traditional variational methods typically require the variational family to be a Kähler manifold, where multiplication by the imaginary unit preserves the tangent spaces. This covers the vast majority of cases studied in the literature. However, recently proposed classes of generalized Gaussian states make it necessary to also include the non-Kähler case, which has already been encountered occasionally. We illustrate our approach in detail with a range of concrete examples where the geometric structures of the considered manifolds are particularly relevant. These go from Gaussian states and group theoretic coherent states to generalized Gaussian states.
Authors:
; ; ; ; ;
Award ID(s):
1734011
Publication Date:
NSF-PAR ID:
10248686
Journal Name:
SciPost Physics
Volume:
9
Issue:
4
ISSN:
2542-4653
Sponsoring Org:
National Science Foundation
More Like this
  1. Embedding properties of network realizations of dissipative reduced order models Jörn Zimmerling, Mikhail Zaslavsky,Rob Remis, Shasri Moskow, Alexander Mamonov, Murthy Guddati, Vladimir Druskin, and Liliana Borcea Mathematical Sciences Department, Worcester Polytechnic Institute https://www.wpi.edu/people/vdruskin Abstract Realizations of reduced order models of passive SISO or MIMO LTI problems can be transformed to tridiagonal and block-tridiagonal forms, respectively, via dierent modications of the Lanczos algorithm. Generally, such realizations can be interpreted as ladder resistor-capacitor-inductor (RCL) networks. They gave rise to network syntheses in the rst half of the 20th century that was at the base of modern electronics design and consecutively to MOR that tremendously impacted many areas of engineering (electrical, mechanical, aerospace, etc.) by enabling ecient compression of the underlining dynamical systems. In his seminal 1950s works Krein realized that in addition to their compressing properties, network realizations can be used to embed the data back into the state space of the underlying continuum problems. In more recent works of the authors Krein's ideas gave rise to so-called nite-dierence Gaussian quadrature rules (FDGQR), allowing to approximately map the ROM state-space representation to its full order continuum counterpart on a judicially chosen grid. Thus, the state variables can be accessed directly from themore »transfer function without solving the full problem and even explicit knowledge of the PDE coecients in the interior, i.e., the FDGQR directly learns" the problem from its transfer function. This embedding property found applications in PDE solvers, inverse problems and unsupervised machine learning. Here we show a generalization of this approach to dissipative PDE problems, e.g., electromagnetic and acoustic wave propagation in lossy dispersive media. Potential applications include solution of inverse scattering problems in dispersive media, such as seismic exploration, radars and sonars. To x the idea, we consider a passive irreducible SISO ROM fn(s) = Xn j=1 yi s + σj , (62) assuming that all complex terms in (62) come in conjugate pairs. We will seek ladder realization of (62) as rjuj + vj − vj−1 = −shˆjuj , uj+1 − uj + ˆrj vj = −shj vj , (63) for j = 0, . . . , n with boundary conditions un+1 = 0, v1 = −1, and 4n real parameters hi, hˆi, ri and rˆi, i = 1, . . . , n, that can be considered, respectively, as the equivalent discrete inductances, capacitors and also primary and dual conductors. Alternatively, they can be viewed as respectively masses, spring stiness, primary and dual dampers of a mechanical string. Reordering variables would bring (63) into tridiagonal form, so from the spectral measure given by (62 ) the coecients of (63) can be obtained via a non-symmetric Lanczos algorithm written in J-symmetric form and fn(s) can be equivalently computed as fn(s) = u1. The cases considered in the original FDGQR correspond to either (i) real y, θ or (ii) real y and imaginary θ. Both cases are covered by the Stieltjes theorem, that yields in case (i) real positive h, hˆ and trivial r, rˆ, and in case (ii) real positive h,r and trivial hˆ,rˆ. This result allowed us a simple interpretation of (62) as the staggered nite-dierence approximation of the underlying PDE problem [2]. For PDEs in more than one variables (including topologically rich data-manifolds), a nite-dierence interpretation is obtained via a MIMO extensions in block form, e.g., [4, 3]. The main diculty of extending this approach to general passive problems is that the Stieltjes theory is no longer applicable. Moreover, the tridiagonal realization of a passive ROM transfer function (62) via the ladder network (63) cannot always be obtained in port-Hamiltonian form, i.e., the equivalent primary and dual conductors may change sign [1]. 100 Embedding of the Stieltjes problems, e.g., the case (i) was done by mapping h and hˆ into values of acoustic (or electromagnetic) impedance at grid cells, that required a special coordinate stretching (known as travel time coordinate transform) for continuous problems. Likewise, to circumvent possible non-positivity of conductors for the non-Stieltjes case, we introduce an additional complex s-dependent coordinate stretching, vanishing as s → ∞ [1]. This stretching applied in the discrete setting induces a diagonal factorization, removes oscillating coecients, and leads to an accurate embedding for moderate variations of the coecients of the continuum problems, i.e., it maps discrete coecients onto the values of their continuum counterparts. Not only does this embedding yields an approximate linear algebraic algorithm for the solution of the inverse problems for dissipative PDEs, it also leads to new insight into the properties of their ROM realizations. We will also discuss another approach to embedding, based on Krein-Nudelman theory [5], that results in special data-driven adaptive grids. References [1] Borcea, Liliana and Druskin, Vladimir and Zimmerling, Jörn, A reduced order model approach to inverse scattering in lossy layered media, Journal of Scientic Computing, V. 89, N1, pp. 136,2021 [2] Druskin, Vladimir and Knizhnerman, Leonid, Gaussian spectral rules for the three-point second dierences: I. A two-point positive denite problem in a semi-innite domain, SIAM Journal on Numerical Analysis, V. 37, N 2, pp.403422, 1999 [3] Druskin, Vladimir and Mamonov, Alexander V and Zaslavsky, Mikhail, Distance preserving model order reduction of graph-Laplacians and cluster analysis, Druskin, Vladimir and Mamonov, Alexander V and Zaslavsky, Mikhail, Journal of Scientic Computing, V. 90, N 1, pp 130, 2022 [4] Druskin, Vladimir and Moskow, Shari and Zaslavsky, Mikhail LippmannSchwingerLanczos algorithm for inverse scattering problems, Inverse Problems, V. 37, N. 7, 2021, [5] Mark Adolfovich Nudelman The Krein String and Characteristic Functions of Maximal Dissipative Operators, Journal of Mathematical Sciences, 2004, V 124, pp 49184934 Go back to Plenary Speakers Go back to Speakers Go back« less
  2. Simulation of quantum systems is challenging due to the exponential size of the state space. Tensor networks provide a systematically improvable approximation for quantum states. 2D tensor networks such as Projected Entangled Pair States (PEPS) are well-suited for key classes of physical systems and quantum circuits. However, direct contraction of PEPS networks has exponential cost, while approximate algorithms require computations with large tensors. We propose new scalable algorithms and software abstractions for PEPS-based methods, accelerating the bottleneck operation of contraction and refactorization of a tensor subnetwork. We employ randomized SVD with an implicit matrix to reduce cost and memory footprint asymptotically. Further, we develop a distributed-memory PEPS library and study accuracy and efficiency of alternative algorithms for PEPS contraction and evolution on the Stampede2 supercomputer. We also simulate a popular near-term quantum algorithm, the Variational Quantum Eigensolver (VQE), and benchmark Imaginary Time Evolution (ITE), which compute ground states of Hamiltonians.
  3. Abstract

    A variational formulation for accelerated optimization on normed vector spaces was recently introduced in Wibisono et al. (PNAS 113:E7351–E7358, 2016), and later generalized to the Riemannian manifold setting in Duruisseaux and Leok (SJMDS, 2022a). This variational framework was exploited on normed vector spaces in Duruisseaux et al. (SJSC 43:A2949–A2980, 2021) using time-adaptive geometric integrators to design efficient explicit algorithms for symplectic accelerated optimization, and it was observed that geometric discretizations which respect the time-rescaling invariance and symplecticity of the Lagrangian and Hamiltonian flows were substantially less prone to stability issues, and were therefore more robust, reliable, and computationally efficient. As such, it is natural to develop time-adaptive Hamiltonian variational integrators for accelerated optimization on Riemannian manifolds. In this paper, we consider the case of Riemannian manifolds embedded in a Euclidean space that can be characterized as the level set of a submersion. We will explore how holonomic constraints can be incorporated in discrete variational integrators to constrain the numerical discretization of the Riemannian Hamiltonian system to the Riemannian manifold, and we will test the performance of the resulting algorithms by solving eigenvalue and Procrustes problems formulated as optimization problems on the unit sphere and Stiefel manifold.

  4. We initiate a systematic analysis of moduli spaces of vacua of four dimensional =3 SCFTs. Our analysis is based on the one hand on the properties of =3 chiral rings --- which we review in detail and contrast with chiral rings of theories with less supersymmetry --- and on the other hand on constraints coming from low-energy supersymmetry. This leads us to introduce a new type of geometric structure, which characterizes =3 SCFT moduli spaces, and that we call triple special Kähler (TSK). A rank-n TSK moduli space has complex dimension 3n, and is singular at complex co-dimension 3 subspaces where charged states become massless. The structure of singularities defines a stratification of the TSK space in terms of lower-dimensional TSK manifolds.
  5. We give a variational proof of a version of the Yau–Tian–Donaldson conjecture for twisted Kähler–Einstein currents, and use this to express the greatest (twisted) Ricci lower bound in terms of a purely algebro-geometric stability threshold. Our approach does not involve a continuity method or the Cheeger–Colding–Tian theory, and uses instead pluripotential theory and valuations. Along the way, we study the relationship between geodesic rays and non-Archimedean metrics.