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Graph machine learning has gained great attention in both academia and industry recently. Most of the graph machine learning models, such as Graph Neural Networks (GNNs), are trained over massive graph data. However, in many realworld scenarios, such as hospitalization prediction in healthcare systems, the graph data is usually stored at multiple data owners and cannot be directly accessed by any other parties due to privacy concerns and regulation restrictions. Federated Graph Machine Learning (FGML) is a promising solution to tackle this challenge by training graph machine learning models in a federated manner. In this survey, we conduct a comprehensive review of the literature in FGML. Specifically, we first provide a new taxonomy to divide the existing problems in FGML into two settings, namely, FL with structured data and structured FL. Then, we review the mainstream techniques in each setting and elaborate on how they address the challenges under FGML. In addition, we summarize the real-world applications of FGML from different domains and introduce open graph datasets and platforms adopted in FGML. Finally, we present several limitations in the existing studies with promising research directions in this field.
Causal inference is a critical research topic across many domains, such as statistics, computer science, education, public policy, and economics, for decades. Nowadays, estimating causal effect from observational data has become an appealing research direction owing to the large amount of available data and low budget requirement, compared with randomized controlled trials. Embraced with the rapidly developed machine learning area, various causal effect estimation methods for observational data have sprung up. In this survey, we provide a comprehensive review of causal inference methods under the potential outcome framework, one of the well-known causal inference frameworks. The methods are divided into two categories depending on whether they require all three assumptions of the potential outcome framework or not. For each category, both the traditional statistical methods and the recent machine learning enhanced methods are discussed and compared. The plausible applications of these methods are also presented, including the applications in advertising, recommendation, medicine, and so on. Moreover, the commonly used benchmark datasets as well as the open-source codes are also summarized, which facilitate researchers and practitioners to explore, evaluate and apply the causal inference methods.
Obeid, Iyad Selesnick (Ed.)Electroencephalography (EEG) is a popular clinical monitoring tool used for diagnosing brain-related disorders such as epilepsy . As monitoring EEGs in a critical-care setting is an expensive and tedious task, there is a great interest in developing real-time EEG monitoring tools to improve patient care quality and efficiency . However, clinicians require automatic seizure detection tools that provide decisions with at least 75% sensitivity and less than 1 false alarm (FA) per 24 hours . Some commercial tools recently claim to reach such performance levels, including the Olympic Brainz Monitor  and Persyst 14 . In this abstract, we describe our efforts to transform a high-performance offline seizure detection system  into a low latency real-time or online seizure detection system. An overview of the system is shown in Figure 1. The main difference between an online versus offline system is that an online system should always be causal and has minimum latency which is often defined by domain experts. The offline system, shown in Figure 2, uses two phases of deep learning models with postprocessing . The channel-based long short term memory (LSTM) model (Phase 1 or P1) processes linear frequency cepstral coefficients (LFCC)  features from each EEGmore »
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Properties of molecules are indicative of their functions and thus are useful in many applications. With the advances of deep-learning methods, computational approaches for predicting molecular properties are gaining increasing momentum. However, there lacks customized and advanced methods and comprehensive tools for this task currently.
Here, we develop a suite of comprehensive machine-learning methods and tools spanning different computational models, molecular representations and loss functions for molecular property prediction and drug discovery. Specifically, we represent molecules as both graphs and sequences. Built on these representations, we develop novel deep models for learning from molecular graphs and sequences. In order to learn effectively from highly imbalanced datasets, we develop advanced loss functions that optimize areas under precision–recall curves (PRCs) and receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curves. Altogether, our work not only serves as a comprehensive tool, but also contributes toward developing novel and advanced graph and sequence-learning methodologies. Results on both online and offline antibiotics discovery and molecular property prediction tasks show that our methods achieve consistent improvements over prior methods. In particular, our methods achieve #1 ranking in terms of both ROC-AUC (area under curve) and PRC-AUC on the AI Cures open challenge for drug discovery related to COVID-19.
Our source code is released as part of the MoleculeX library (https://github.com/divelab/MoleculeX) under AdvProp.
Supplementary data are available at Bioinformatics online.