Abstract. We consider a nonlinear, moving boundary, fluid-structure interaction problem between a time dependent incompressible, viscous fluid flow, and an elastic structure composed of a cylindrical shell supported by a mesh of elastic rods. The fluid flow is modeled by the time-dependent Navier- Stokes equations in a three-dimensional cylindrical domain, while the lateral wall of the cylinder is modeled by the two-dimensional linearly elastic Koiter shell equations coupled to a one-dimensional system of conservation laws defined on a graph domain, describing a mesh of curved rods. The mesh supported shell allows displacements in all three spatial directions. Two-way coupling based on kinematic and dynamic coupling conditions is assumed between the fluid and composite structure, and between the mesh of curved rods and Koiter shell. Problems of this type arise in many ap- plications, including blood flow through arteries treated with vascular prostheses called stents. We prove the existence of a weak solution to this nonlinear, moving boundary problem by using the time discretization via Lie operator splitting method combined with an Arbitrary Lagrangian-Eulerian approach, and a non-trivial extension of the Aubin-Lions-Simon compactness result to problems on moving domains.
Verification and convergence study of a spectral-element numerical methodology for fluid-structure interaction
A high-order in space spectral-element methodology for the solution of a strongly coupled fluid-structure interaction (FSI) problem is developed. A methodology is based on a partitioned solution of incompressible fluid equations on body-fitted grids, and nonlinearly-elastic solid deformation equations coupled via a fixed-point iteration approach with Aitken relaxation. A comprehensive verification strategy of the developed methodology is presented, including h-, p-and temporal refinement studies. An expected order of convergence is demonstrated first separately for the corresponding fluid and solid solvers, followed by a self-convergence study on a coupled FSI problem (self-convergence refers to a convergence to a reference solution obtained with the same solver at higher resolution). To this end, a new three-dimensional fluid-structure interaction benchmark is proposed for a verification of the FSI codes, which consists of a fluid flow in a channel with one rigid and one flexible wall. It is shown that, due to a consistent problem formulation, including initial and boundary conditions, a high-order spatial convergence on a fully coupled FSI problem can be demonstrated. Finally, a developed framework is applied successfully to a Direct Numerical Simulation of a turbulent flow in a channel interacting with a compliant wall, where the fluid-structure interface is fully resolved.
- Publication Date:
- NSF-PAR ID:
- Journal Name:
- Journal of computational physics
- Page Range or eLocation-ID:
- Sponsoring Org:
- National Science Foundation
More Like this
Lagrangian vs. Eulerian: An Analysis of Two Solution Methods for Free-Surface Flows and Fluid Solid Interaction ProblemsAs a step towards addressing a scarcity of references on this topic, we compared the Eulerian and Lagrangian Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) approaches for the solution of free-surface and Fluid–Solid Interaction (FSI) problems. The Eulerian approach uses the Finite Element Method (FEM) to spatially discretize the Navier–Stokes equations. The free surface is handled via the volume-of-fluid (VOF) and the level-set (LS) equations; an Immersed Boundary Method (IBM) in conjunction with the Nitsche’s technique were applied to resolve the fluid–solid coupling. For the Lagrangian approach, the smoothed particle hydrodynamics (SPH) method is the meshless discretization technique of choice; no additional equations are needed to handle free-surface or FSI coupling. We compared the two approaches for a flow around cylinder. The dam break test was used to gauge the performance for free-surface flows. Lastly, the two approaches were compared on two FSI problems—one with a floating rigid body dropped into the fluid and one with an elastic gate interacting with the flow. We conclude with a discussion of the robustness, ease of model setup, and versatility of the two approaches. The Eulerian and Lagrangian solvers used in this study are open-source and available in the public domain.
Reduced modelling and global instability of finite-Reynolds-number flow in compliant rectangular channelsExperiments have shown that flow in compliant microchannels can become unstable at a much lower Reynolds number than the corresponding flow in a rigid conduit. Therefore, it has been suggested that the wall's elastic compliance can be exploited towards new modalities of microscale mixing. While previous studies mainly focused on the local instability induced by the fluid–structure interactions (FSIs) in the system, we derive a one-dimensional (1-D) model to study the FSI's effect on the global instability. The proposed 1-D FSI model is tailored to long, shallow rectangular microchannels with a deformable top wall, similar to the experiments. Going beyond the usual lubrication flows analysed in these geometries, we include finite fluid inertia and couple the reduced flow equations to a novel reduced 1-D wall deformation equation. Although a quantitative comparison with previous experiments is difficult, the behaviours of the proposed model show, qualitatively, agreement with the experimental observations, and capture several key effects. Specifically, we find the critical conditions under which the inflated base state of the 1-D FSI model is linearly unstable to infinitesimal perturbations. The critical Reynolds numbers predicted are in agreement with experimental observations. The unstable modes are highly oscillatory, with frequencies close to the naturalmore »
Abstract This paper proposes a deep-learning based generalized empirical flow model (EFM) that can provide a fast and accurate prediction of the glottal flow during normal phonation. The approach is based on the assumption that the vibration of the vocal folds can be represented by a universal kinematics equation (UKE), which is used to generate a glottal shape library. For each shape in the library, the ground truth values of the flow rate and pressure distribution are obtained from the high-fidelity Navier-Stokes (N-S) solution. A fully-connected deep neural network (DNN) is then trained to build the empirical mapping between the shapes and the flow rate and pressure distributions. The obtained DNN based EFM is coupled with a finite-element method (FEM) based solid dynamics solver for flow-structure-interaction (FSI) simulation of phonation. The EFM is evaluated by comparing to the N-S solutions in both static glottal shapes and FSI simulations. The results demonstrate a good prediction performance in accuracy and efficiency.
This study presents the first 3D two-way coupled fluid structure interaction (FSI) simulation of a hybrid anechoic wind tunnel (HAWT) test section with modeling all important effects, such as turbulence, Kevlar wall porosity and deflection, and reveals for the first time the complete 3D flow structure associated with a lifting model placed into a HAWT. The Kevlar deflections are captured using finite element analysis (FEA) with shell elements operated under a membrane condition. Three-dimensional RANS CFD simulations are used to resolve the flow field. Aerodynamic experimental results are available and are compared against the FSI results. Quantitatively, the pressure coefficients on the airfoil are in good agreement with experimental results. The lift coefficient was slightly underpredicted while the drag was overpredicted by the CFD simulations. The flow structure downstream of the airfoil showed good agreement with the experiments, particularly over the wind tunnel walls where the Kevlar windows interact with the flow field. A discrepancy between previous experimental observations and juncture flow-induced vortices at the ends of the airfoil is found to stem from the limited ability of turbulence models. The qualitative behavior of the flow, including airfoil pressures and cross-sectional flow structure is well captured in the CFD. Frommore »