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Title: Meta‐analysis of transcriptomic studies of cytokinin‐treated rice roots defines a core set of cytokinin response genes
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Award ID(s):
1856431 1856248
Publication Date:
Journal Name:
The Plant Journal
Sponsoring Org:
National Science Foundation
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  1. Cytokinin is an important phytohormone that employs a multistep phosphorelay to transduce the signal from receptors to the nucleus, culminating in activation of type-B response regulators which function as transcription factors. Recent chromatin immunoprecipitation-sequencing (ChIP-seq) studies have identified targets of type-B ARABIDOPSIS RESPONSE REGULATORs (ARRs) and integrated these into the cytokinin-activated transcriptional network. Primary targets of the type-B ARRs are enriched for genes involved in hormonal regulation, emphasizing the extensive crosstalk that can occur between cytokinin, auxin, abscisic acid, brassinosteroids, gibberellic acid, ethylene, jasmonic acid, and salicylic acid. Examination of hormone-related targets reveals multiple regulatory points including biosynthesis, degradation/inactivation, transport, and signal transduction. Here, we consider this early response to cytokinin in terms of the hormones involved, points of regulatory crosstalk, and physiological significance.
  2. Cytokinins (CKs) and ethylene (ET) are among the most ancient organic chemicals on Earth. A wide range of organisms including plants, algae, fungi, amoebae, and bacteria use these substances as signaling molecules to regulate cellular processes. Because of their ancestral origin and ubiquitous occurrence, CKs and ET are also considered to be ideal molecules for inter-kingdom communication. Their signal transduction pathways were first historically deciphered in plants and are related to the two-component systems, using histidine kinases as primary sensors. Paradoxically, although CKs and ET serve as signaling molecules in different kingdoms, it has been supposed for a long time that the canonical CK and ET signaling pathways are restricted to terrestrial plants. These considerations have now been called into question following the identification over recent years of genes encoding CK and ET receptor homologs in many other lineages within the tree of life. These advances shed new light on the dissemination and evolution of these hormones as both intra- and inter-specific communication molecules in prokaryotic and eukaryotic organisms.